ĘAwww.cadima.com/en/index.phpC:/Sites/www.cadima.com/www.cadima.com/en/index.htmlwww.cadima.com/C:/Sites/www.cadima.com/www.cadima.com/en/index.html.zxŘ]-]                    ╚OŞ┤paŃOKtext/htmlgzip╚╣üaŃ    Tue, 16 Jul 2019 05:11:29 GMTh└U░Q@Q°Q@OV8Q°]-]        ▓■aŃ Cadima pathé
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Cadima-Path├ę

Cadima Path├ę is a trading and brokerage company specialized in natural fragrance products used in the perfume, cosmetics, and flavors industries.


Fruit of a long experience in the business and of an intensive and deep relationship with its suppliers-producers worldwide, the Cadima Path├ę Company is in position to provide a large selection of exceptional quality aromatic products of plant or animal origin.


To aim to the excellence of modernity and keep one's root values is the process Cadima Path├ę is so keen on. Therefore, its trading partners use and develop state-of-the-art extraction techniques: cold expression used for citrus fruits, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction for certain spicesÔÇŽ


Cadima Path├ę has created A4aroma as an answer to an increasing demand of the general public. The new brand offers its clients the possibility to provide themselves in high quality perfume raw materials and above all in small quantities.


Amyris - Haïti
Amyris balsamifera
Basil Grand green - Egypt
Ocimum basilicum L. ssp Grand vert chemotype Linalol
Bergamot - Italy
Citrus aurantium L. ssp. bergamia
Bitter orange, Bigarade - Italy
Citrus aurantium
Black Pepper - Madagascar
Piper nigrum
Cedar Virginian - USA (Virginia)
Juniperus virginiana L.
Cinnamon bark - Sri lanka
Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Clary sage - Russia
Salvia Sclarea
Coriander - Egypt
Coriandrum sativum L
Cumin, Roman caraway - Egypt
Cumimum cymimum
Cypress - Spain
Cupressus sempervirens L.
Eucalyptus globulus - Australia
Eucalyptus globulus
Fir needle Siberian - Russia
Abies sibirica
Geranium Bourbon - Reunion Island
Pelargonium graveolens
Geranium China - China
Pelargonium graveolens
Geranium Egypt - Egypt
Pelargonium graveolens
Geranium Madagascar - Madagascar
Pelargonium graveolens
Green mandarin - Italy
Citrus reticulata Blanco
Juniperberry -
Juniperus communis L.
Lavander Bulgarian - Bulgaria
Lavandula agustifolia
Lavander Fine - France
Lavandula agustifolia
Lavander maillette - France
Lavandula agustifolia
Lavandin abrial - France
Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Subsp. angustifolia x L. latifolia Medik
Lavandin grosso - France
Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Subsp. angustifolia x L. latifolia Medik
Lavandin Super - France
Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Subsp. angustifolia x L. latifolia Medik
Lemon - Italy
Citrus limon (L.) Burm.
Litsea cubeba - China
Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Persoon
Mentha arvensis - China
Mentha arvensis
Neroli - Tunisia
Citrus aurantium, ssp amara
Niaouli - Madagascar
Melaleuca quinquenervia cineolifera
Nutmeg - Sri lanka or Indonesia
Myristica fragans Houtt
Orange sweet - Italy, Brazil, South africa .....
Citrus sinensis
Orange Tarocco - Italy
Citrus sinensis
Palmarosa - India
Cymbopogon martinii
Patchouli Brut - Indonesia
Pogostemon cablin Benth
Patchouli DM - Indonesia
Pogostemon cablin Benth
Peppermint - France
Mentha piperita
Petitgrain Bigarade - Egypt
Citrus aurantium
Petitgrain Mandarin - Egypt
Citrus reticulata
Petitgrain Paraguay - Paraguay
Citrus aurantium
Red Mandarin - Italy
Citrus reticulata Blanco
Rose - Bulgaria
Rosa Damascena
Rosemary - Tunisia
Rosmarinus officinalis
Sandalwood, Tanzania - Tanzania
Osyris lanceolata
Santalwood, India - India
Sandalum album
Sweet marjoram - Egypt
Origanum majorana L.
Tagetes - Egypt
Tagetes minuta Syn : Tagetes glandulifera
Tea tree - Madagascar
Melaleuca alternilolia
Vetiver - Haïti
Vetiveria zizanioides
Yellow Mandarin - Italy
Citrus reticulata Blanco
Ylang-Ylang Extra - Madagascar or Comores
Cananga odorata
Ylang-Ylang First - Madagascar or Comores
Cananga odorata
Ylang-Ylang full - Madagascar or Comores
Cananga odorata
Ylang-Ylang Third - Madagascar or Comores
Cananga odorata

Amyris

Label: 100% pure and natural essantial oil
Country of origin: Haïti
Botanical origin: Amyris balsamifera
Part of plant used: Wood
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8015-65-4
CAS-EINECS: 90320-49-3
EINECS: 291-076-6
FDA: approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 172.510)
CoE: included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 33)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2018) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 242
   Amyris

History & Origin:

More commonly referred to as West Indian sandalwood oil, it should not be confused with the botanical species Santalum album that originates in India and Indonesia.

The botanical origin of the Amyris tree remained obscure until 1886 when initial attempts by Kirkby and Holmes identified striking differences between this species and true sandalwood by microscopic examination of the leaves. In recognition of the efforts of an EO Company called Schimmel & Co, the botanical name for this plant was originally Schimmelia oleifera n. sp. Subsequently it was classified as Amyris balsamifera L. by Urban.

The haïtans call it "candle wood" since it burns like a candle because of its high essantial oil content.

Description of plant / tree:

Amyris is an evergreen tree native to the West Indies and Central America.

The tree grows to about 60 feet (I8 m) high and has clusters of white flowers that develop into edible bluish-black fruit.

Product description:

Physical state: Viscous liquid
Odour: Distinct odor suggestive of sandalwood
Color: Yellowish
Density at 20┬░C: [0.946 ; 0.978]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [+10┬░ ; +53┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.502 ; 1.512]
Main components: Val├ęrianol; El├ęmol; 10-gamma-├ępi-eudesmol


Basil Grand green

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Egypt
Botanical origin: Ocimum basilicum L. ssp Grand vert chemotype Linalol
Part of plant used: Leaves and flowers
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8015-73-4
CAS-EINECS: 84775-71-3
EINECS: 283-900-8
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 308)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2119) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 260
   Basil Grand green

History & Origin:

Native to India, it is a sacred plant dedicated to Vishnu, that the fundamentalists of the Brahmanic church consider to be of divine essence.
The initial name "Basilikon" comes from the royal status that the legend grants to it.
The Greeks neglected it as the herb was a symbol of hostility and insanity, however it was prized by the Romans.
The French were introduced to it by Catherine de Medicis in 1533 when she married King Henry II and brought with her Italian chefs and a taste for food well seasoned with basil. They dubbed it "Herbe Royale".
By the 17th century, besides its culinary uses, basil was widely used in Europe to treat colds, warts, and intestinal worms.

 

Description of plant / tree:

Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is found in 3 varieties (grand green, fine green and lettuce leaves) and has the distinction of having a different essential oil composition according to the area of production. The first two chemotypes are of economic significance:
 
1) Ocimum basilicum L. estragole chemotype (Basil R├ęunion type and Vietnam type)
2) Ocimum basilicum L. linalol chemotype (mutant basil Egyptian type)
3) Ocimum basilicum L. eugenol chemotype (Java, Russia, Seychelles, Morocco)
 
Description :
It is an herbaceous and annual plant, 30 to 60 cm high, with large, opposing, lanceolate and fragrant leaves. The stem has a square section. The flowers have a white or pinkish corolla, in a spike at the top of the stems. It has two pairs of etamins, one of them shorter. The seeds are small, oval and brown becoming muscillageneous on contact with water.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Spicy, Flowery
Color: Pale yellow to yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.940 ; 0.960 ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.500 ; 1.600 ]
Main components: Linalol, cin├ęol, eug├ęnol


Bergamot

Label: 100% pure and natural essantial oil
Country of origin: Italy
Botanical origin: Citrus aurantium L. ssp. bergamia
Part of plant used: Zest
Manufacture: Cold expression
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8007-75-8
CAS-EINECS: 89957-91-5
EINECS: 289-612-9
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 137)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2153) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 1091
   Bergamot

Product description:



Bitter orange, Bigarade

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Italy
Botanical origin: Citrus aurantium
Part of plant used: Fresh peel
Manufacture: Cold expression
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 68916-04-1
CAS-EINECS: 72968-50-4
EINECS: 277-143-2
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 136)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2823) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 233
   Bitter orange, Bigarade

History & Origin:

It was a native tree to the Far East, and widespread over India and Persia. It was unknown to the Romans, even at their height and was introduced into the Mediterranean area by Arabs in the Xth century well before the sweet orange. Then, it was introduced to the Americas not long after its discovery by Colombus. The sweet orange arrived later with the return to Portugal of the explorer Vasco da Gama

The origin of the neroli name dates back to the XVII century, where Anne-Marie de La Tremoille, spouse of the Prince of Neroli, discovered an essential oil distilled from the flowers, which she used to perfume her gloves.

 

Did you know that ?

The word orange derives from Arabic "naranja" and from the Sanscrit "nagarunga" which means "the preferred fruit of elephants".

Description of plant / tree:

An evergreen tree that grows up to 10 m. The leaves are dark green on the upper surface, lighter green underneath. Compared with the sweet orange tree, the leaves are more lanceolate and pointed, with clearly winged leafstalk.

The flowers are white with five fleshy petals and very fragrant in April. The fruits have a rough skin and a bitter and acid pulp. It is the only citrus which can grow to the north of the orange tree limit (Italian lakes). In March, when the sap is rising, a small snowfall is enough to cause defoliation and bursting of the stems.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Characteristic
Color: Dark yellow to olive-yellow or pale brownish yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0.8400 ; 0.8600]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.4680 ;1.4800]
Main components: Limonene, Linalool, Linalyl acetate, Myrcene


Black Pepper

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Madagascar
Botanical origin: Piper nigrum
Part of plant used: Dried, unripened fruit
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8006-82-4
CAS-EINECS: 84929-41-9
EINECS: 284-524-7
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 347)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2845) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 324
   Black Pepper

History & Origin:

This is native to the Southwest of India (Malabar). Ancient Sanskrit documents mention it in the IVth century BC.

In the VI th century BC, the Greek philosopher and scientist Theophraste mentions it under the name "peperi", from the Sanskrit "pippali", and he distinguished 2 species : the long and the round.

For many centuries, it was used as a bargaining counter. In 408, Alaric, king of Wisigoths, entered triumphantly Rome, where he got one ton of pepper, seizure of a colossal value in that time.

Pepper is the most widely used spice in the Occident and today it is cultivated in all tropical regions.

 

Do you know that ?

What are the differences between black, white, green and pink peppers?

- Black pepper : Berries are picked when they turn yellow, fermented for several days, and then dried in the sun. Their covering membrane shrivels and becomes black.

- White pepper : Berries are picked when they are ripe then soaked in water to soften the covering membrane, which is removed. The seeds are recovered and dried until they turn white.

- Green pepper : Berries picked before they reach ripeness, when they are still green and milky and sold fresh, dried, pickled (in vinegar or brine), or deep-frozen under vacuum.

- Pink pepper : This is nothing to do with the pepper tree! These are berries that come from a tree that is native to South America: the "false pepper tree" or Shinus molle.

Description of plant / tree:

It is a perennial liana with evergreen foliage, with adventitious roots allowing the plant to attach to trees or to a stake. The aerial part can grow 10 m high and is made of 3 different woods:

- Stolons which creep on the ground

- Orthotrop stems (frame)

- Plagiotrop stems (fruit-bearing)

The inflorescence is a dangling spike with 20 to 50 flowers giving green berries that turn yellow then red when ripe.

The fruit is a sessile berry 4 to 8 mm in diameter, first green, and then yellow and finally red when it is mature.

In the wild, many Piper nigrum varieties can be encountered, propagated by birds eating the fruit's seeds. After centuries of planting, man has selected more productive plants, propagated by cuttings; these produce a large percentage of bisexual flowers. In this area, there are two distinct groups:

1 - Large leaves, long internode and small berries (type Lampong or Kawur). 2 - Small leaves, shorter internode and big berries (type Muntok or Bangka).

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Characteristic odor of pepper
Color: Colorless to yellow-green
Density at 20┬░C: [0.864 ; 0.884]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [-18┬░ ; +20┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.475 ; 1.490]
Main components: (+)-3-carene, Beta-caryophyllene, Limonene, Alpha-pinene, Beta-pinene, Sabinene


Cedar Virginian

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: USA (Virginia)
Botanical origin: Juniperus virginiana L.
Part of plant used: Wood
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8000-27-9
CAS-EINECS: 85085-41-2
EINECS: 285-370-3
RIFM Id: 113
   Cedar Virginian

History & Origin:

Cedar is a symbol of immortality. In ancient times it was called "the life of the dead", because the fragrance of the wood repelled insects and gnawing worms from tombs.

Cedar comes from the Greek word "kedros", which was the name of a conifer at the time of Homer.

Description of plant / tree:

Native to North America, especially east of the Rocky Mountains, it's a coniferous, slow-growing, evergreen tree up to 30 m high with a narrow, dense and pyramidal crown, reddish heartwood and brown cones. The tree can attain a majestic stature with a trunk diameter of over 1.5 m.

It is in fact a variety of juniper, even if the characteristics of its composition move closer to it many of the real cedar.

Product description:

Physical state: Slightly viscous liquid
Odour: Sweet, woody
Color: Colorless to yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0.941 ; 0.970]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [-36┬░ ; -16┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.501 ; 1.510]
Main components: alpha-c├ędr├Ęne, thujops├Ęne , cupar├Ęne , c├ędrol


Cinnamon bark

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Sri lanka
Botanical origin: Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Part of plant used: Dried inner bark of the shrub
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8015-91-6
CAS-EINECS: 84649-98-9
EINECS: 283-479-0
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 133)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2291) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 328
   Cinnamon bark

History & Origin:

Cinnamon is native to Western India and Sri Lanka.
Cinnamomum verum grew in Somalia during the biblical period, since Cinnamomum cassia grew in the Far-East.
By the 17th century BC, Egyptians used cinnamon and cassia bought from Asian traders to embalm mummies.
During the Exodus, Moses anointed the tabernacle with this spice.
The use of cinnamomum is recorded in Chinese medical history from at least 2700 B.C.
The ancients looked at it as a most precious spice, a royal gift like gold, myrrh and olibanum.
Ships loaded with precious barks crossed the Indian ocean, coming from China or Ceylon, to the Persian Gulf to be unloaded from their freight. Traders carried them by camels to the Mediterranean shores in Sidon and Tyr, where they where destined for the Greek or Roman empires.
In 1758, the Dutch got possession of the Ceylon Island and controlled strictly the production, what allowed them to maintain high prices.
In 1796, the English annex Ceylon and impose a monopoly via the famous " East India Company " until 1833.
The French Pierre Poivre broke the monopoly by smuggling cinnamon plants out of Ceylon and establishing them in the Seychelles where it's now a major crop.
The name cinnamon comes from the Indonesian kayu manis , meaning sweet wood.

 

Description of plant / tree:

It is a tree 5 to 10 m high, with small blue flowers. Pruning is made to give a bushy shape like a willow. The bark is cut out in pieces that develop the characteristic flavour after a short fermentation.
Trunk with thick and rough bark with the typical cinnamon fragrance and flavour.
Leave : opposite, simple, carried by a petiole. Oblong and oval limb. Dimensions: 10 - 18cm x 4 - 5cm. 3 to 5 prominent longitudinal veins. Dark-green and glossy on the top side. Light green and matt underneath.
Flowers : regular and terminal spikes, or axillary spikes with 15 to 60 flowers.
Fruit : Black and pulpy drupe, with an ovoid seed 1 to 1.7 cm length.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Characteristic
Color: Yellowish to dark brown
Density at 20┬░C: [1.000 ; 1.080]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [?2┬░ ; +1┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.529 ; 1.580]
Main components: Beta-caryophyllene, Cinnamaldehyde, Eugenol, Linalool


Clary sage

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Russia
Botanical origin: Salvia Sclarea
Part of plant used: Flowering tops and leaves
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8016-63-5
CAS-EINECS: 84775-83-7
EINECS: 283-911-8
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 415)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2321) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 310
   Clary sage

History & Origin:

It is a very ancient medicinal plant, native to the Eastern Mediterranean area and Syria. It is mentioned in ancient Egypt, by the Romans and in Gaul along with its close parent Salvia officinalis . 

In 795, under the name of "Sclareiam" (from Latin clarus = to clarify) alluding to its use as eyewash (obtained by seed decoction) it was one of the recommended plants in the Villis's Capitular.

The plant was introduced to England in 1562. Later, it was widely used from 1908 by German wine merchants in the manufacture of various brands of vermouth. The practice of German merchants of adding clary sage and elder flowers to Rhine wine to make it imitate a good Muscatel was so common that Germans still call the herb Muskateller Salbei and the English know it as Muscatel Sage. Clary sometimes replaced hops in beer to produce an enhanced state of intoxication and exhilaration, although this reportedly was often followed by a severe headache.

It was considered aphrodisiac in the 12th century .

The word salvia comes from the Latin "salvare" signifying to save, or to heal.

Description of plant / tree:

This is a biennial plant with an erect bearing, 60 - 80cm high.

It has large, greyish- coloured, woolly and oval leaves.

Pink or lilac flowers appear from July to September ;

The whole plant emits a strong musky fragrance and it is an excellent honey plant.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Characteristic
Color: Yellow to pale orange
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.890 ; 0.908 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -26┬░ ; -10┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.454 ; 1.466 ]
Main components: Geranyl acetate, Linalool, Linalyl acetate, Germacrene-D


Coriander

Label: 100% pure and natural essantial oil
Country of origin: Egypt
Botanical origin: Coriandrum sativum L
Part of plant used: Leaves or Seed
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8008-52-4
CAS-EINECS: 84775-50-8
EINECS: 283-880-0
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 154)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2333) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 238
   Coriander

History & Origin:

Coriander of Armenian origin was already cultivated 1,500 years B.C. and some fruits have been found in the tombs of ancient Egypt.

All the medical texts of the Middle Ages indicated its origin to be central Asia. It was a valuable commodity, comparable to pepper in modern times.

The Greeks named it "koriandron" from "koris" which means bedbug, in connection with the stinkbug smell of the leaves.

The Romans spread it throughout Europe and it was the first spice to arrive in America.

Commonly called "Chinese parsley", coriander was introduced in England by the Romans, where it was all the rage during the Elizabethan period. It is used as flavouring for cooking (curry, falafels, tajines) and as a medicinal plant.

Description of plant / tree:

Coriander is an herbaceous, annual, fertile plant and has a foliar dimorphism.

The young rosulate leaves have long leafstalks and are deeply lobed. When it blooms, the distance between nodes of the acaulescent plant increases, and the stems have alternate denticulate leaves.

The stem is thin and smooth.

The inflorescence has an umbrella form; the flower is zygomorphic and is pollinated by insects.

Blooms July to September.

The globular fruit has ten segments and contains two hemispherical seeds.

The flavour components are mainly found in the leaves and seeds. There are no secreting tissues, and the active products are found in the cytoplasm. When the fruit matures, two types of secreting canals appear; the external ones produce the oxygenated and aldehydic components, and the internal ones produce alcohols and terpenes. As the fruit matures the external canals disappear in favour of the internal ones, and the fragrance of the plant becomes very different, changing from a 'crushed forest bug' to the fine characteristic fragrance of the seed. Coriander has a high content of foliar proteins (6%).

Product description:

Physical state: Liquid
Odour: Strong distinctive aromatic smell, spiced with a prickly flavor
Color: Colorlss to light yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0.820 ; 0.895]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [+0┬░ ; +15┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.455 ; 1.470]
Main components: a-pinene,b-pinene, myrcene, g-terpinene, p-cymene, linalool, lynalyl acetate, geranyl acetate and camphor


Cumin, Roman caraway

Label: 100% pure and natural essantial oil
Country of origin: Egypt
Botanical origin: Cumimum cymimum
Part of plant used: Seed
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8014-13-9
CAS-EINECS: 84775-51-9
EINECS: 283-881-6
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 161)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2243) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 331
   Cumin, Roman caraway

History & Origin:

A very old spice native to western Asia (Turkestan), cumin was widely used in food and medicine in Ancient Times.

It was quoted by the prophet Isaiah and seeds were discovered in Egyptian tombs. Decadent Romans used to eat the seeds as a digestive aid after feasting. In the Middle Ages, it was in great demand in Europe, but baned over time with the evolution of cooking and tastes.

Cumin is often confused with a few other spices. In Indian recipes, cumin is frequently confused with caraway, which it resembles in appearance, though not in taste, cumin being far more powerful.

Description of plant / tree:

A delicate annual herb, 50 cm tall with a slim erect stem, grooved and branched out, bearing deeply denticulated green feathery leaves.

The flowers are small, white or slightly pink, arranged in umbels with 3 or 5 petals. Blooms in June-July.

The fruits, strongly aromatic, are elongated elliptical diakens, 4 to 6 mm long and 2 mm wide.

Product description:

Physical state: Liquid
Odour: Fat, aromatic, woody
Color: Yellow to brown
Density at 20┬░C: [0,905 ; 0,930]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [+1┬░ ; +8┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1,490 ; 1,506]
Main components: Cumin ald├ęhyde, terpin├Ęne gamma, paracym├Ęne, b├¬ta-pin├Ęne, menthadi├ęnals


Cypress

Label: 100% pure and natural essantial oil
Country of origin: Spain
Botanical origin: Cupressus sempervirens L.
Part of plant used: Leaves and branches
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8013-86-3
CAS-EINECS: 84696-07-1
EINECS: 283-626-9
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 162
RIFM Id: 659
   Cypress

History & Origin:

Originating from Middle-East, cypress is the symbol of the eternity.

Egyptian use of the wood to make the sarcophagi for mummies because it was almost immune to rot.

In China, this mystic tree was thought to take its place in the centre of the universe. Cypresses and pines are planted on graves to give strength to the soul of the dead and to save their body from corruption.

In an Assyrian writing dating 15th B.C., Cypress is described as a remedy for pains and itching.

Green cypress ( Cupressus sempervirens ), is common in the Mediterranean region, where it was spread by the Roman expansion. Cypress wood is practically rot-resistant. There are many varieties of Green Cypress. One of them ( C. sempervirens var. pyramidalis ), called Male Cypress (wrongly, because each tree bears, male and female flowers), is used as an ornamental plant in parks and particularly in cemeteries, linking a connotation of sadness and mourning to its name.

Description of plant / tree:

This Great Cypress, widespread in the South, is never found wild in France. There are two forms:

- One with spread branches ( horizontalis form)

- The other in a column shape ( pyramidalis form), which is sometimes very narrow ( stricta form).

Its height does not exceed twenty meters. It has a very characteristic conic and tapering form. It is covered by a fibrous bark, which is slightly fluted and reddish-grey coloured. Its root system is well developed. The dark green leaves, triangular scale-shaped, are small, but so tightly packed next to one another that they hide the short small branch which bears them. The flowers that appear early in spring are unisexual, male elements and female elements coexisting on the same individual. The first grouped together in short terminal cones, yellow-coloured. The second assembled in more globulous cones that are grey-green coloured. The frutescence (set of fertilized ovules and the scales protecting them), called "galbule" or cypress nuts, contain winged seeds and appear after 2 years in autumn. The globulous nuts are green when young, then turn brown and lignous. In spite of a slow growth, the green cypress is a high value species of forest tree. It has hard, compact and resinous wood, offers notable resistance to atmospheric agents and insect attack. It can live for 1,000 years.

Other varieties : - Cupressus arizonica GR. (Smooth Arizona cypress) - Cupressus lusitanica (Kenian cypress) - Callistris intratropica (Australian cypress)

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Fresh, woody odor
Color: Yellow to greenish yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0,863 ; 0,886]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [+15┬░ ; +30┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20°C: [1,468 à 1,478]
Main components: Alpha-pinene, delta-3-carene, cedrol, limonene


Eucalyptus globulus

Label: 100% pure and natural essantial oil
Country of origin: Australia
Botanical origin: Eucalyptus globulus
Part of plant used: Leaves
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8000-48-4
CAS-EINECS: 84625-32-1
EINECS: 283-406-2
FDA: Approved by the FDA as a flavor ( 21 CFR 172.510)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 492)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 4219) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 122
   Eucalyptus globulus

History & Origin:

Native to Australia and neighbouring archipelago, the Eucalyptus genus includes more than 500 species. Some are of modest height but others are true giants reaching close to 100 m. The immense forests which they form, perceived by far by the first explorers, conferred on the island-continent the nickname of " country of the blue fogs ". In the same way, we sometimes name  it under our climates " blue gum tree ".

The leaves form the exclusive diet of the Koala.

The word comes from the Greek "eu" or well and "kalyptos" or covered, alluding to the operculum covering the stamens.

Native to Tasmania (Australia), Eucalyptus globulus have been widely introduced in various countries of the world that have a mild climate, because of their fast growth and their wood quality. They were popular for a long time because people also believed that their perfume repelled mosquitoes and therefore malaria. In fact, the reduction in the illness is caused by the drying up of soil because the roots absorb a huge quantity of water.

It was introduced in France by Ramel in 1860, then developped in Portugal where it is used for paper pulp.

Description of plant / tree:

Eucalyptus globulus  trees can reach 40 m high (or more in its native country).

The young leaves are opposing, oval and sessile. Leaves of the adult trees are alternate, pedunculate, long, shaped like a scythe and emit a strong and characteristic fragrance.

Small branches are slightly downy.

The bark of the adult tree shows a characteristic desquamation.

Inflorescence in July-August is axilliary with 2 or 3 light yellow flowers, and the fruit is an angular capsule.

Product description:

Physical state: Liquid
Odour: Typical
Color: Colorless to Light yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0,906 ; 0,927]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [0┬░ ; +10┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1,458 ; 1,470]
Main components: 1,8 cineole ( >80%), pinene, limonene


Fir needle Siberian

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Russia
Botanical origin: Abies sibirica
Part of plant used: Needles
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8021-29-2
CAS-EINECS: 91697-89-1
EINECS: 294-351-9
FDA: Approved by the FDA as flavor ( 21 CFR 172.510)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 5)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2905) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 162
   Fir needle Siberian

History & Origin:

Native species to Siberia, which was introduced in Europe in 1820.

The name Abies comes from Greek "abin" meaning "long living".

Description of plant / tree:

A tree with a middle size and a conical top, 15 to 20 m high but which can reach 40 m high, with a trunk 1 m in diameter and smooth grey bark, with resin's pouches.

Leaves in straight and narrow needles, 3 - 4 cm for those which are under the twig, 1,5 - 3 cm for those which are on top.

Flowers: pollination in May.

Fruit: cone 6 - 8 cm long, cylindrical, first bluish then reddish-brown and resiniferous.

The seed is 7 mm long with a bluish wing 1 cm long, which ripens in October - November.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Characteristic
Color: Colorless to pale yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0.872 ; 0.910]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [-56┬░ ; - 20┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.466 ; 1.478]
Main components: Bornyl acetate, Camphene, (+)-3-carene, Alpha-pinene


Geranium Bourbon

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Reunion Island
Botanical origin: Pelargonium graveolens
Part of plant used: Fresh plants, harvested at the period of initial bloom
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8000-46-2
CAS-EINECS: 90082-51-2
EINECS: 290-140-0
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 324)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2508) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 133
   Geranium Bourbon

History & Origin:

The Pelargonium genus originated from South Africa, where Paul Herman identified the first pelargonium in 1672, P. cucullatum (L.) L'Herit.

Geranium for use in the fragrance industry was introduced into the R├ęunion island at the end of the XIXth century with Pelargonium capitatum (locally called "small geranium") which was followed around 1900 by Pelargonium graveolens from Grasse (known as "large geranium").

The creation of the interspecific hybrid P. capitatum x P. radens lead to the development of the famous "geranium Bourbon" quality of Essential Oil.

 

The first recorded distillation of the pelargonium leaves was in 1819 by the chemist Recluz, but it was not until the latter part of the 19th century that real production of the essential oil began, and that was almost exclusively for the perfumery industry.

The strong rose-like odour of the geranium oil, with its green-minty undertones has long been an essential ingredient of many exquisite perfumes, and the oil has often been used to adulterate the more expensive rose oil.

Description of plant / tree:

Ligneous plants 20 to 80 cm tall, Pelargonium are shaped like large rounded clumps.

The leaves are green, cordiform and lobed.

The flowers have an irregular shape, a pink colour, and are grouped in very dense umbellate. T

All the plant emits a slightly minty-rosy fragrance.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Rose like with minty note
Color: Yellowish to greenish brown
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0,885 ; 0,897 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -17┬░ ; -9┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1,460 ; 1,470]
Main components: Citronellol, Geraniol, Isomenthone, Linalol, Citronellyl formate


Geranium China

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: China
Botanical origin: Pelargonium graveolens
Part of plant used: Fresh plants, harvested at the period of initial bloom
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8000-46-2
CAS-EINECS: 90082-51-2
EINECS: 290-140-0
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 324)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2508) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 133
   Geranium China

History & Origin:

The Pelargonium genus originated from South Africa, where Paul Herman identified the first pelargonium in 1672, P. cucullatum (L.) L'Herit.

Geranium for use in the fragrance industry was introduced into the R├â┬ęunion island at the end of the XIXth century with Pelargonium capitatum (locally called "small geranium") which was followed around 1900 by Pelargonium graveolens from Grasse (known as "large geranium").

The creation of the interspecific hybrid P. capitatum x P. radens lead to the development of the famous "geranium Bourbon" quality of Essential Oil.

The Chinese geranium was introduced in the Yunnan province by European missionaries in the 1940s.

 

The first recorded distillation of the pelargonium leaves was in 1819 by the chemist Recluz, but it was not until the latter part of the 19th century that real production of the essential oil began, and that was almost exclusively for the perfumery industry.

The strong rose-like odour of the geranium oil, with its green-minty undertones has long been an essential ingredient of many exquisite perfumes, and the oil has often been used to adulterate the more expensive rose oil.

Description of plant / tree:

Ligneous plants 20 to 80 cm tall, Pelargonium are shaped like large rounded clumps.

The leaves are green, cordiform and lobed.

The flowers have an irregular shape, a pink colour, and are grouped in very dense umbellate. T

All the plant emits a slightly minty-rosy fragrance.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Rose like with minty note
Color: Amber yellow to greenish yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0,882 ; 0,899 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -14┬░ ; -7┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1,460 ; 1,472]
Main components: Citronellol, Geraniol, Isomenthone, Linalol, Citronellyl formate


Geranium Egypt

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Egypt
Botanical origin: Pelargonium graveolens
Part of plant used: Fresh plants, harvested at the period of initial bloom
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8000-46-2
CAS-EINECS: 90082-51-2
EINECS: 290-140-0
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 324)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2508) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 133
   Geranium Egypt

History & Origin:

The Pelargonium genus originated from South Africa, where Paul Herman identified the first pelargonium in 1672, P. cucullatum (L.) L'Herit.

Geranium for use in the fragrance industry was introduced into the R├ęunion island at the end of the XIXth century with Pelargonium capitatum (locally called "small geranium") which was followed around 1900 by Pelargonium graveolens from Grasse (known as "large geranium").

The creation of the interspecific hybrid P. capitatum x P. radens lead to the development of the famous "geranium Bourbon" quality of Essential Oil.

 

The first recorded distillation of the pelargonium leaves was in 1819 by the chemist Recluz, but it was not until the latter part of the 19th century that real production of the essential oil began, and that was almost exclusively for the perfumery industry.

The strong rose-like odour of the geranium oil, with its green-minty undertones has long been an essential ingredient of many exquisite perfumes, and the oil has often been used to adulterate the more expensive rose oil.

Description of plant / tree:

Ligneous plants 20 to 80 cm tall, Pelargonium are shaped like large rounded clumps.

The leaves are green, cordiform and lobed.

The flowers have an irregular shape, a pink colour, and are grouped in very dense umbellate. T

All the plant emits a slightly minty-rosy fragrance.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Rose like with minty note
Color: Yellowish to greenish
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0,885 ; 0,905 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -14┬░ ; -8┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1,461 ; 1,475]
Main components: Citronellol, Geraniol, Isomenthone, Linalol, Citronellyl formate


Geranium Madagascar

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Madagascar
Botanical origin: Pelargonium graveolens
Part of plant used: Fresh plants, harvested at the period of initial bloom
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8000-46-2
CAS-EINECS: 90082-51-2
EINECS: 290-140-0
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 324)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2508) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 133
   Geranium Madagascar

History & Origin:

The Pelargonium genus originated from South Africa, where Paul Herman identified the first pelargonium in 1672, P. cucullatum (L.) L'Herit.

Geranium for use in the fragrance industry was introduced into the R├ęunion island at the end of the XIXth century with Pelargonium capitatum (locally called "small geranium") which was followed around 1900 by Pelargonium graveolens from Grasse (known as "large geranium").

The creation of the interspecific hybrid P. capitatum x P. radens lead to the development of the famous "geranium Bourbon" quality of Essential Oil.

 

The first recorded distillation of the pelargonium leaves was in 1819 by the chemist Recluz, but it was not until the latter part of the 19th century that real production of the essential oil began, and that was almost exclusively for the perfumery industry.

The strong rose-like odour of the geranium oil, with its green-minty undertones has long been an essential ingredient of many exquisite perfumes, and the oil has often been used to adulterate the more expensive rose oil.

Description of plant / tree:

Ligneous plants 20 to 80 cm tall, Pelargonium are shaped like large rounded clumps.

The leaves are green, cordiform and lobed.

The flowers have an irregular shape, a pink colour, and are grouped in very dense umbellate. T

All the plant emits a slightly minty-rosy fragrance.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Rose like with minty note
Color: Yellowish to greenish
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0,887 ; 0,897 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -17┬░ ; -9┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1,462 ; 1,471]
Main components: Citronellol, Geraniol, Isomenthone, Linalol, Citronellyl formate


Green mandarin

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Italy
Botanical origin: Citrus reticulata Blanco
Part of plant used: Zest
Manufacture: Cold expression
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8008-31-9
CAS-EINECS: 84929-38-4
EINECS: 284-521-0
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 142)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. (3041) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 1095
   Green mandarin

History & Origin:

The Mandarins are native to South East Asia (Southern China, Vietnam, Assam and North of Burma).

The Mandarin tree was imported from Indochina in 1828 and planted in the western part of the Mediterranean basin spreading into all continents between the Equator and the latitudes 40┬░-54┬░ North and South.

It is very likely the mandarin owes its name, via Italian " mandarino ", to the powerful Chinese mandarins for whom this fruit was intended.

 

Did you know that?

It was crossbred with the bitter orange tree in Algeria by Father Clement; the Mandarin Tree has produced the clementine tree, the fruit of which is more precocious and almost seedless.

Description of plant / tree:

The Mandarin tree is 5 to 8 m high, more or less thorny, with lanceolate leaves.

Axillary flowers are small and white-coloured.

Fruits, often oblate, have a thin and non adherent skin, orange to red-coloured.

The pip's embryo has a particular green colour.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Typical of mandarin, green and fruity
Color: Green to dark green
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.8440 ; 0.8560 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ +69┬░ ; +79┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.4700 ; 1.4800 ]
Main components: Limonene, Alpha-pinene, Beta-pinene, Gamma-terpinene


Juniperberry

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Botanical origin: Juniperus communis L.
Part of plant used: Dried ripe fruit
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8002-68-4
CAS-EINECS: 84603-69-0
EINECS: 283-268-3
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 249)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2604) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 337
   Juniperberry

History & Origin:

This small tree is sacred in the northern hemisphere.

Several medicinal recipes survive in Egyptian papyri dating to 1550 BC.

In Ancient Greece, it was intended for the Eumenides (fearsome divinities) and the smoke of small branches was offered as incense to the infernal gods.

Hippocrates saved Athens from the plague by burning juniper branches in front of each infection.

Much later, in 1870 during the siege of Paris, a smallpox epidemic in hospitals was checked by the same method.

 

The plant name comes from the Celtic word "juneprus", which means "acrid" The English name "gin" is an adaptation from the Dutch "genever" because the Dutch were the first to distil the berries.

Description of plant / tree:

A small tree with spreading branches, evergreen, 1 to 3 m high and slow growing.

Green-blue-coloured leaves, narrow, sharp, thorny, inserted by three. Characteristic : its leaves are striped on top with a single white band, opposite to cade Juniperus oxycedrus which have two.

Small yellow flowers (April/ May), dioic, not very visible, grouped in small catkins at the leaves axila.

Globulous and crimson to black-coloured berries, each containing 3 triangular seeds, which only appear on female plants after 3 years. A plant can carry several generations of berries, which are therefore in different stages of ripeness.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Fresh
Color: Pale yellow to yellow
Main components: Alpha-pinene, Beta-pinene, Sabinene, Germacrene-D


Lavander Bulgarian

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Bulgaria
Botanical origin: Lavandula agustifolia
Part of plant used: Flowering stalks
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8000-28-0
CAS-EINECS: 90063-37-9
EINECS: 289-995-2
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 257)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2622) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 169
   Lavander Bulgarian

History & Origin:

Lavender, native to Southern Europe, was known in Ancient Times and is mentioned in the writings of the Roman physician Dioscorides as early as the first century A.D.

It is also believed that the Egyptians soaked linen sheets in lavender and natural asphalt during the mummifying process.

The Greeks and later the Romans liked it both for its fragrance but especially for its therapeutic value.

It was used during the Middle Ages to ward off the bubonic plague.

 

Did you know that ?

The name lavender comes from the Latin "lavare" which means "to wash", as Roman people used to perfume their bath with this plant.

 

Description of plant / tree:

This is a perennial bushy plant 30 to 70 cm high, smaller than lavandin.

Square, whitish and slender stems.

Narrow indeciduous, entire, opposite and spear shaped green-gray leaves.

Blue-violet flowers (the famous lavender-blue colour), clumped in 12 cm long spikes, with a typical aromatic fragrance.

 

We distinguish the Lavenders of population (fine lavenders: carla and rapido) from clonales lavenders the most common of which are Maillette and Matheronne. The lavenders of population have a quality of fine said essential oil, while clonales lavenders have a typified essential oil.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Characteristic of Lavender, fresh, sweet floral
Color: Pale yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0,875 ; 0,890 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -12,5┬░ ; -7┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1,455 ; 1,464 ]
Main components: 1,8-cineole, Linalool, Linalyl acetate, Terpinene-4-ol


Lavander Fine

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: France
Botanical origin: Lavandula agustifolia
Part of plant used: Flowering stalks
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8000-28-0
CAS-EINECS: 90063-37-9
EINECS: 289-995-2
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 257)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2622) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 169
   Lavander Fine

History & Origin:

Lavender, native to Southern Europe, was known in Ancient Times and is mentioned in the writings of the Roman physician Dioscorides as early as the first century A.D.

It is also believed that the Egyptians soaked linen sheets in lavender and natural asphalt during the mummifying process.

The Greeks and later the Romans liked it both for its fragrance but especially for its therapeutic value.

It was used during the Middle Ages to ward off the bubonic plague.

 

Did you know that ?

The name lavender comes from the Latin "lavare" which means "to wash", as Roman people used to perfume their bath with this plant.

Description of plant / tree:

This is a perennial bushy plant 30 to 70 cm high, smaller than lavandin.

Square, whitish and slender stems.

Narrow indeciduous, entire, opposite and spear shaped green-gray leaves.

Blue-violet flowers (the famous lavender-blue colour), clumped in 12 cm long spikes, with a typical aromatic fragrance.

 

We distinguish the Lavenders of population (fine lavenders: carla and rapido) from clonales lavenders the most common of which are Maillette and Matheronne. The lavenders of population have a quality of fine said essential oil, while clonales lavenders have a typified essential oil.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Characteristic of Lavender, fresh, sweet floral
Color: Pale yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0,875 ; 0,890 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -12,5┬░ ; -7┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1,455 ; 1,464 ]
Main components: 1,8-cineole, Linalool, Linalyl acetate, Terpinene-4-ol


Lavander maillette

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: France
Botanical origin: Lavandula agustifolia
Part of plant used: Flowering stalks
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8000-28-0
CAS-EINECS: 90063-37-9
EINECS: 289-995-2
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 257)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2622) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 169
   Lavander maillette

History & Origin:

Lavender, native to Southern Europe, was known in Ancient Times and is mentioned in the writings of the Roman physician Dioscorides as early as the first century A.D.

It is also believed that the Egyptians soaked linen sheets in lavender and natural asphalt during the mummifying process.

The Greeks and later the Romans liked it both for its fragrance but especially for its therapeutic value.

It was used during the Middle Ages to ward off the bubonic plague.

 

Did you know that ?

The name lavender comes from the Latin "lavare" which means "to wash", as Roman people used to perfume their bath with this plant.

Description of plant / tree:

This is a perennial bushy plant 30 to 70 cm high, smaller than lavandin. Square, whitish and slender stems. Once established, the base become woody. Narrow indeciduous, entire, opposite and spear shaped green-gray leaves. Blue-violet flowers (the famous lavender-blue colour), clumped in 12 cm long spikes, with a typical aromatic fragrance. The mountain variety is more estimated that the one of plains, which, by hybridization, led to the large lavender, bastard laven

This is a perennial bushy plant 30 to 70 cm high, smaller than lavandin.

Square, whitish and slender stems.

Narrow indeciduous, entire, opposite and spear shaped green-gray leaves.

Blue-violet flowers (the famous lavender-blue colour), clumped in 12 cm long spikes, with a typical aromatic fragrance.

 

We distinguish the Lavenders of population (fine lavenders: carla and rapido) from clonales lavenders the most common of which are Maillette and Matheronne. The lavenders of population have a quality of fine said essential oil, while clonales lavenders have a typified essential oil.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Characteristic of Lavender, fresh, sweet floral
Color: Pale yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0,875 ; 0,890 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -12,5┬░ ; -7┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1,455 ; 1,464 ]
Main components: 1,8-cineole, Linalool, Linalyl acetate, Terpinene-4-ol


Lavandin abrial

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: France
Botanical origin: Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Subsp. angustifolia x L. latifolia Medik
Part of plant used: Flowers
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8022-15-9
CAS-EINECS: 93455-96-0
EINECS: 297-384-7
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
RIFM Id: 5532
   Lavandin abrial

History & Origin:

This plant has only been used industrially since 1920-1930. After the Second World War, it widely replaced lavender, which became too expensive as a fragrance ingredient for use in soaps and detergents.

During the World War II, The Essential Oil of lavandin was the raw material to prepare linalool, linalyl acetate, citral, ionones, methylionones, citronellal and hydroxycitronellal.

A specific variant of lavandin, known as 'Abrial', formed the basis of the French lavender industry from 1920 to the 1970's. However this variety was susceptible to disease from a pathogenic microorganism. The disease cut the plant life from around eight to ten years to three or four.

In 1972 'Grosso' replaced 'Abrial' and since 1975 'Grosso' has been the dominant variant. The variety known as 'Super' is also in use today. It is found in the foothills of the Alpes mountains.

Description of plant / tree:

In comparison with lavender, lavandin plants are larger, bowl shaped and identical, due to hybridization.

Altitude plays a part in differentiation of the two species; while the lavandin grows from sea level up to 900 m, lavender grows only above 350 - 400 m, never lower.

Lavender is recognizable by its small stem (30 - 40 cm), with its flower spike of the typical lavender colour, while the lavandin stem is longer (60 - 80 cm) and its flower spike is larger, sharper, and violet coloured.

All the lavandins bear a single ramification on the floral stem, and are larger than lavender.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Rustic, flowery (lavender), camphorated
Color: Light yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.885 ; 0.899 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -7┬░ ; -3┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.458 ; 1.462 ]
Main components: Linalol, ac├ętate de linalyle, camphre, 1,8-cin├ęole


Lavandin grosso

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: France
Botanical origin: Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Subsp. angustifolia x L. latifolia Medik
Part of plant used: Flowers
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8022-15-9
CAS-EINECS: 93455-97-1
EINECS: 297-385-2
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2618) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 190
   Lavandin grosso

History & Origin:

This plant has only been used industrially since 1920-1930. After the Second World War, it widely replaced lavender, which became too expensive as a fragrance ingredient for use in soaps and detergents.

During the World War II, The Essential Oil of lavandin was the raw material to prepare linalool, linalyl acetate, citral, ionones, methylionones, citronellal and hydroxycitronellal.

A specific variant of lavandin, known as 'Abrial', formed the basis of the French lavender industry from 1920 to the 1970's. However this variety was susceptible to disease from a pathogenic microorganism. The disease cut the plant life from around eight to ten years to three or four.

In 1972 'Grosso' replaced 'Abrial' and since 1975 'Grosso' has been the dominant variant. The variety known as 'Super' is also in use today. It is found in the foothills of the Alpes mountains.

Description of plant / tree:

In comparison with lavender, lavandin plants are larger, bowl shaped and identical, due to hybridization.

Altitude plays a part in differentiation of the two species; while the lavandin grows from sea level up to 900 m, lavender grows only above 350 - 400 m, never lower.

Lavender is recognizable by its small stem (30 - 40 cm), with its flower spike of the typical lavender colour, while the lavandin stem is longer (60 - 80 cm) and its flower spike is larger, sharper, and violet coloured.

All the lavandins bear a single ramification on the floral stem, and are larger than lavender.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Fresh, flowery (lavender), camphorated
Color: Light Yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.885 ; 0.899 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -7┬░ ; -3┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.458 ; 1.462 ]
Main components: Linalol, ac├ętate de linalyle, camphre, 1,8-cin├ęole


Lavandin Super

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: France
Botanical origin: Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Subsp. angustifolia x L. latifolia Medik
Part of plant used: Flowers
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8022-15-9
CAS-EINECS: 91722-69-9
EINECS: 294-470-6
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2618) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 190
   Lavandin Super

History & Origin:

This plant has only been used industrially since 1920-1930. After the Second World War, it widely replaced lavender, which became too expensive as a fragrance ingredient for use in soaps and detergents.

During the World War II, The Essential Oil of lavandin was the raw material to prepare linalool, linalyl acetate, citral, ionones, methylionones, citronellal and hydroxycitronellal.

A specific variant of lavandin, known as 'Abrial', formed the basis of the French lavender industry from 1920 to the 1970's. However this variety was susceptible to disease from a pathogenic microorganism. The disease cut the plant life from around eight to ten years to three or four.

In 1972 'Grosso' replaced 'Abrial' and since 1975 'Grosso' has been the dominant variant. The variety known as 'Super' is also in use today. It is found in the foothills of the Alpes mountains.

Description of plant / tree:

In comparison with lavender, lavandin plants are larger, bowl shaped and identical, due to hybridization.

Altitude plays a part in differentiation of the two species; while the lavandin grows from sea level up to 900 m, lavender grows only above 350 - 400 m, never lower.

Lavender is recognizable by its small stem (30 - 40 cm), with its flower spike of the typical lavender colour, while the lavandin stem is longer (60 - 80 cm) and its flower spike is larger, sharper, and violet coloured.

All the lavandins bear a single ramification on the floral stem, and are larger than lavender.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Fresh, flowery (lavender), camphorated
Color: Light Yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.883 ; 0.899 ]
Optical rotation at 20°C: [ -9° ; -3° ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.458 ; 1.462 ]
Main components: Linalol, ac├ętate de linalyle, camphre, 1,8-cin├ęole


Lemon

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Italy
Botanical origin: Citrus limon (L.) Burm.
Part of plant used: Zest
Manufacture: Cold expression
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8008-56-8
CAS-EINECS: 84929-31-7
EINECS: 284-515-8
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 139)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2625) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 1094
   Lemon

History & Origin:

Citrus are native to South East Asia (south China, Vietnam, Assam and the North of Burma) but ancient forms of lemon are unknown. Citrus were used in Asia for a long time before the species were transported westward to become part of ancient cultures in Mesopotamia (4000 B.C.), Egypt and Greece.

Citrus medica var. ethrog was described in the Bible from 200 B.C. The Jews were introduced to this fruit in Babylonia during their exile there, in the Fifth century B.C., and they carried it back to Palestine thereafter. Moreover, lemon was carried by the Moslem migration through northern Africa to Spain during the Middle Ages.

In the Xth century, Crusaders brought back citrus from Palestine and Egypt, but for a long time, it was used only as moth repellent and poison antidote. 

Lemon is derived from a Hindustani word that was translated into Arabic as limun .

Description of plant / tree:

According to Swingle, lemon is a hybrid of Citrus medica L. and Citrus aurantifolia Swingle.

Lemon trees are small and thorny trees, 3 to 5 m high. Leaves are oval, large and light green-coloured, with a leafstalk simply margined. Young sprouts are crimson coloured, and floral buds are white inside, crimson outside.

The scented flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by insects. So, the plant is self- fertile. There are many fruits (1,500 to 2,000 in an adult tree) yellow-coloured and ovoid, with a thin, juicy and acid pulp. Fruits coexist with flowers on the same tree.

Product description:

Physical state: Liquid
Odour: Characteristic of Lemon
Color: Pale to dark yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0,8400 ; 0,8600]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [1,4650 ; 1,4850]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [+57┬░ ; +66┬░]
Main components: Geranyl acetate, Limonene, Beta-pinene, Sabinene, Gamma-terpinene, Geranial, Neral, Terpinolene


Litsea cubeba

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: China
Botanical origin: Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Persoon
Part of plant used: Fruits
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 68855-99-2
CAS-EINECS: 90063-59-5
EINECS: 290-018-7
CoE: Iincluded by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 491)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 18 ( 3846) Newberne,1998
   Litsea cubeba

History & Origin:

Litsea cubeba is native to China, Indonesia and some other parts of Southeast Asia where it occurs mainly in mountainous regions.

More known under the name of exotic verbena , the litsea cubeba is a tropical shrub small fruits of which have in common with the pepper only the shape, where from the qualifier of " cubeba ". Because for the rest, leaves and flowers loosen a delicate lemony smell, suggestive of freshness and of clear weather. Its fruity and pleasant perfume, calling back the lemon with in the background a light floral note enters the composition of hesp├ęrid├ęs perfumes.

The roots and stem have been used for centuries by the Chinese to treat indigestion, lower back pains, chills, headaches and travel sickness.

It wasn't until the 1950's that the EO was first distilled from the pepperlike fruits and began to compete in popularity with lemongrass oil. The litsea EO is finer, more lemon-like than lemongrass one.

 

Did you know that ?

The Essential Oil of Litsea cubeba leaves at the application level of 1.5% is a viable source of termite repellent.

 

Description of plant / tree:

Litsea cubeba is a small evergreen tropical tree, 5 - 12 m high with a stem diameter of 6 - 20 cm.

The small fruits that emit a lemony odour when crushed, resemble cubeb pepper.

We cultivate the Litsea cubeba in South-East Asia and if the Chinese consume it little, it does not prevent them from being the first producers.

 

 

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Lemon-herbal odor
Color: Pale to dark yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0.863 ; 0.892]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [+2┬░ ; +12┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.4750 ; 1.4900]
Main components: Citral (n├ęral + g├ęranial), limon├Ęne


Mentha arvensis

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: China
Botanical origin: Mentha arvensis
Part of plant used: Budding overground parts
Manufacture: Steam distillation , followed by the partial dementholization by crystallization.
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 68917-18-0
CAS-EINECS: 90063-97-1
EINECS: 290-058-5
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 492)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 22 ( 4219) Smith,2005c
RIFM Id: 509
   Mentha arvensis

History & Origin:

According to Ovid, Mentha comes from Mintha , the Greek name for a nymph that the jealous Persephone changed into mint.

It seems that the Ancients used the Pennyroyal mint type.

The Chinese praised mints for their tranquillizing and antispasmodic properties.

Hippocrates considered it an aphrodisiac and Pliny esteemed their analgesic action. Greek and Roman added mint to milk to prevent spoilage and served the herb after meals as a digestive aid.

 

Did you know that ?

Mint is used as an insect repellent, as rats and mice intensely dislike its smell.

Description of plant / tree:

In the plant kingdom, mint is a most complex kind of plant, because of the many hybrids appearing from the spontaneous crossbreeding between species.

We can basically distinguish:

- Mints with spike; the flowers have a terminal spike without leaves.

- Short mints, with flowers layered out as stacked verticils at the leaf steak axilla.

Mint arvensis, which is one of short mints, is a sterile hybrid variety, native to Japan and China, with the following characteristics: 

      - Leaves large, in pairs, slightly notched, frequently downy, and compared to the more common mints, relatively smooth

        leaved.

      - Square stem.

      - Creeping rootstalk.

      - Flowers usually light pink to lavender, with a hairy bell-shaped calyx, short and broad dentations and hairy annulus in the

        corolla.

      - The plant does not flower in terminal spikes as other mints but in the axils of the upper leaves.

      - Flowering from May to September, and the seeds ripen from July to October.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Minty
Color: Colorless to amber yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0,890 ; 0,908]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [-24┬░ ; -15┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1,457 ; 1,465]
Main components: 1,8-cineole, Limonene, Menthol, Menthone, Menthyl acetate, Neo-menthol, Piperitenone


Neroli

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Tunisia
Botanical origin: Citrus aurantium, ssp amara
Part of plant used: Fresh Flowers
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8016-38-4
CAS-EINECS: 72968-50-4
EINECS: 277-143-2
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 136)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2771) Hall,1965
   Neroli

History & Origin:

It was a native tree to the Far East, and widespread over India and Persia.
It was unknown to the Romans, even at their height and was introduced into the Mediterranean area by Arabs in the Xth century well before the sweet orange.
Then, it was introduced to the Americas not long after its discovery by Colombus.
The sweet orange arrived later with the return to Portugal of the explorer Vasco da Gama
The origin of the neroli name dates back to the XVII century, where Anne-Marie de La Tremoille, spouse of the Prince of Neroli, discovered an essential oil distilled from the flowers, which she used to perfume her gloves.
 
 
Did you know that ?
The word orange derives from Arabic "naranja" and from the Sanscrit "nagarunga" which means "the preferred fruit of elephants".

It is the flowers of the orange tree bigarade that contain the invaluable essential oil of N├ęroli. This rare and expensive essential oil makes the happiness of the perfumers.

Description of plant / tree:

An evergreen tree that grows up to 10 m.
The leaves are dark green on the upper surface, lighter green underneath. Compared with the sweet orange tree, the leaves are more lanceolate and pointed, with clearly winged leafstalk.
The flowers are white with five fleshy petals and very fragrant in April.
The fruits have a rough skin and a bitter and acid pulp.
It is the only citrus which can grow to the north of the orange tree limit (Italian lakes). In March, when the sap is rising, a small snowfall is enough to cause defoliation and bursting of the stems.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Liquid
Odour: Flowery, pleasant
Color: Pale yellow to amber
Density at 20┬░C: [0,863 ; 0,876]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [+2┬░ ; +11┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.464 ; 1.474]
Main components: Linalol, b├¬ta-pin├Ęne, limon├Ęne, ac├ętate de linalyle


Niaouli

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Madagascar
Botanical origin: Melaleuca quinquenervia cineolifera
Part of plant used: Leaves
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8014-68-8
CAS-EINECS: 132940-73-9
EINECS: 310-217-5
RIFM Id: 7152
   Niaouli

History & Origin:

The Melaleuca group numbers about 150 species of trees and bushes. They are better known as tea trees.

The name comes from melas (black) and leukos (white). Indeed the bark is dark on the trunk and mature branches, whereas it is white on young small branches.

The generic term tea tree covers this large group of botanical species. It is a popular denomination, which originated in the XVIII th century, when the sailors of Captain Cook used it as a substitute for tea. The New Caledonia tribes called it nyaouli, which means both peel and bark.

Niaouli essential oil was produced in Australia up to 1970 but could not compete with similar eucalyptus essential oil and production ceased.

Description of plant / tree:

This is an evergreen tree of medium size, 20 m maximum, with a tortuous shape.

The bark and wood is pinkish. The bark is a potential raw material for the production of fibreboard and insulation.

The leaves, 7 cm long, are green, alternate, petiolate, lanceolate, and typical with five longitudinal veins (hence the Latin name " quinquenerva ").

The species flowers profusely from February to May, and produces abundant nectar and pollen, a good source for excellent honey.

A characteristic, is that the flowering spike (white or creamy-yellow and bottle-brush shaped) may continue to grow after fruiting, and become a leafy branchlet.

Product description:

Physical state: Liquid
Odour: Sweet, fresh, camphoraceous
Color: Colorless to pale yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0,902 ; 0,930 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -9 ; +5┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1,460 ; 1,474 ]
Main components: Oxydes terp├ęniques (dont 1, 8-cin├ęole ├á plus de 50%), monoterp├ęnol (dont Linalol, A-Terpi├ęnol et Viridiflor), Monoterp├Ęnes, Sesquiterp├Ęnes


Nutmeg

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Sri lanka or Indonesia
Botanical origin: Myristica fragans Houtt
Part of plant used: Dried kernels of the ripe seed
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8008-45-5
CAS-EINECS: 84082-68-8
EINECS: 282-013-3
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 296)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2793) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 184
   Nutmeg

History & Origin:

Nutmeg comes from the Banda Islands (Moluccas Islands). Unknown by the Ancients, nutmeg seems only to appear in the Occident at the beginning of the Middle Ages, imported by the Arabs. Fragments have been found in mummies from ancient Egypt, probably used for embalming purposes.

From the XIIth century mace was used in the north of Europe although it was very expensive; in England a pound of mace cost the price of half a cow. Into the XVIIIth century it is mentioned in "the romance of the rose".

Until the XVIth century, Lisbon was the centre for trade in nutmeg. The Dutch then assured themselves of the monopoly (as they did for cinnamon) by destroying nutmeg trees everywhere else except on Banda Islands, "the nutmeg's park", that they controlled.

Nutmeg was transplanted by Pierre Poivre to Mauritius island and La Reunion, then introduced to Guyana by french colonists in 1772 from where it reached the West Indies in 1820.

Nutmeg enjoyed great prestige with doctors "to strengthen the brain and the male organs".

The name comes from the Latin word "macir" = aromatic bark" and from Greek "myristicos" = odorous.

 

Do you know that ?

*   Why are nutmegs limed ? This goes back up to the XVIIth century, at the time of the Dutch monopoly. They coated the nutmegs with lime to sterilize them and so avoid transplanting them somewhere else than on the Banda Islands. This practice is still used nowadays to limit attack by worms and to obtain the ceruse-coloured aspect.

*   Nutmeg is a narcotic which, when consumed in large doses, causes hallucinations and could be fatal! (2 nuts).

Description of plant / tree:

The aromatic nutmeg tree is a pyramidal, thickly-covered tree reaching 10 to 20 m high, always green reminiscent of the pear tree through its bearing.

The leaves are lanceolate, evergreen, alternate and gleaming.

The tree is dioic, some stands bear only male flowers, others only female flowers, both grouped in branching racemes. They give a fruit that looks like, in size, an apricot. When it reaches ripeness, this fruit opens in two valves to free a seed, more properly a stone that is very hard, the nutmeg .

This seed is covered with a pulpy membrane; the aril, shining deep-red, which contrasts sharply with the brown colour of the nutmeg.

This aril, particularly rich in aromatic essence, is sold under the name of mace or nutmeg flower. To recover the mace, it is separated from the seed, soaked in salt water (to preserve it), then dried. It then takes on the appearance of a thick and mucilaginous substance, with an overpowering smell and an acrid and very aromatic flavour. Under the mace, is a ligneous tegument which must be broken to extract the nut, which is nutmeg. The flesh of the nut is oily (25 % of lipids or nutmeg butter).

The nut can be cut with a knife and easily grated, its inside then appears veined and marbled, covered by brown-reddish lines.

Mace is the aril (the bright red, lacy covering) of the nutmeg seed shell. In its natural state, mace is a bright crimson lace up to 35 mm (1 - 1 1/2 in) long, encasing the brown nutmeg in irregular, fleshy lobes. As it is dried, it develops its charcteristic aroma but loses its bright red colour. Mace from the West Indies is a yellowish brown colour and with fewer holes than mace from East Indian nutmegs, which are more orange when dried. The mace from either locale can become brittle and horny, though the best quality mace will retain some pliability and release a little oil when squeezed. It is flattened and sometimes roughly broken into 'blades'. It is also sold ground and sometimes still enclosing the nutmeg.

Product description:

Physical state: Liquid
Odour: Woody , spicy , sweet
Color: Colorless to pale yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0,850 ; 0,923]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [+6┬░ ; +30┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1,470 ; 1,488]
Main components: Sabin├Ęne, pin├Ęnes, myristicine


Orange sweet

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Italy, Brazil, South africa .....
Botanical origin: Citrus sinensis
Part of plant used: Zest
Manufacture: Cold expression
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8008-57-9
CAS-EINECS: 8028-48-6
EINECS: 232-433-8
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 143)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2825) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 192
   Orange sweet

History & Origin:

Native to China, sweet orange trees spread into India at the beginning of the Christian era, when Arabs took it to Syria, Egypt and Palestine. From there it was introduced by the Portuguese into the Mediterranean basin in the XVth century, long after the bitter orange tree.

Citrus arrived in Florida before 1565, but only became an important industry after Florida ceded from Spain in 1821.

Considered as a precious fruit, it is cultivated under cover in orangeries. Versailles appreciates it a lot and reserves its harvests to the privileged members of the court.

 

Did you know that ?

Orange comes from the Arabian word narangja, borrowed from Sanskrit nagarunga, which means "the favourite fruit of elephants".

Description of plant / tree:

Evergreen tree of about 6 m high, smaller than the bitter variety.

The scented small fragrant white flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Apomictic (reproduce by seeds formed without sexual fusion) and insects. The plant is then self-fertile.

Non thorny small branches. Leaves are oval, sharp, tough, dark-shiny green on top, lighter green underneath.

Fruits are spherical with orange or reddish coloured peel, with or without seeds depending upon the variety. Juicy, sweet and little acidulous pulp.

The seed (or pip) is without albumen.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Sweet, light & fresh, fruity-aldehydic
Color: Yellow to Orange
Density at 20┬░C: [0,8380 ; 0,8500]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [+94┬░ ; + 99┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1,4680 ; 1,4800]
Main components: Citral (Geranial, Neral), Citronellal, Limonene, Linalool, Alpha-pinene


Orange Tarocco

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Italy
Botanical origin: Citrus sinensis
Part of plant used: Zest
Manufacture: Cold expression
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8008-57-9
CAS-EINECS: 8028-48-6
EINECS: 232-433-8
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 143)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2825) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 192
   Orange Tarocco

History & Origin:

Native to China, sweet orange trees spread into India at the beginning of the Christian era, when Arabs took it to Syria, Egypt and Palestine. From there it was introduced by the Portuguese into the Mediterranean basin in the XVth century, long after the bitter orange tree.

Citrus arrived in Florida before 1565, but only became an important industry after Florida ceded from Spain in 1821.

Considered as a precious fruit, it is cultivated under cover in orangeries. Versailles appreciates it a lot and reserves its harvests to the privileged members of the court.

Tarocco is a variety of orange sangine produced almost exclusively in Sicily.

 

Did you know that ?

Orange comes from the Arabian word narangja, borrowed from Sanskrit nagarunga, which means "the favourite fruit of elephants".

The name TAROCCO would be pulled(fired) by an exclamation of surprise expressed by a farmer to whom we showed this fruit.

Description of plant / tree:

Evergreen tree of about 6 m high, smaller than the bitter variety.

The scented small fragrant white flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Apomictic (reproduce by seeds formed without sexual fusion) and insects. The plant is then self-fertile.

Non thorny small branches. Leaves are oval, sharp, tough, dark-shiny green on top, lighter green underneath.

Orange Tarocco is oranges with pigments red ( anthocyanes )
Tarocco is a medium-sized, very sweet and delicious and particularly popular fruit in Italy. It would have been obtained from a mutation of Sanguinello. Its wealth in vitamin C is doubtless most brought the up by the various varieties of orange developed in the world mainly because of the fertile soil surrounding Mount Etna. Because, fruits mature before being picked in maturity, from December till March.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Sweet, light & fresh, fruity-aldehydic
Color: Yellow to reddish orange
Density at 20┬░C: [0,8380 ; 0,8500]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [+90┬░ ; +100┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1,4680 ; 1,4800]
Main components: Citral (Geranial, Neral), Citronellal, Limonene, Linalool, Alpha-pinene


Palmarosa

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: India
Botanical origin: Cymbopogon martinii
Part of plant used: Partially dried grass
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8014-19-5
CAS-EINECS: 84649-81-0
EINECS: 283-461-2
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Admissable ( COE No. 40)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2831) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 418
   Palmarosa

History & Origin:

Well known in India since Antiquity, palmarosa leaves were used to perfume bath water, or in medicinal external applications to make ointments for blows and wounds.

This plant arrived in Europe in the Middle Ages via Turkey (Constantinople), and was traded by Portuguese in the 16th century, who misnamed it as "Indian or Turkish geranium Essential Oil" as it was used for the adulteration of Damas rose oil.

Afterwards it became an important source of rose notes amply used in cheap perfumes, or for soap fragrances in substitution of the genuine rose Essential Oil.

Description of plant / tree:

As with all Cymbopogons, palmarosa is an aromatic perennial grass 2.5 m high that has long, narrow and pointed leaves, with a central line and sharp edges, giving off a rosy fragrance.

Long slender stems.

Inflorescences are linear in panicle 10-20 cm long, turning bright reddish when mature.

Fructification is in November.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Sweet, Flowery, rose like
Color: Pale yellow to amber
Density at 20┬░C: [0.875 ; 0.895]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [-5┬░ ; +5┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.4710 ; 1.4781]
Main components: Geraniol, Geranyl acetate


Patchouli Brut

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Indonesia
Botanical origin: Pogostemon cablin Benth
Part of plant used: Leaves
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8014-09-3
CAS-EINECS: 84238-39-1
EINECS: 282-493-4
FDA: Approved by the FDA as a flavor ( 21 CFR 172.510)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 353)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2838) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 193
   Patchouli Brut

History & Origin:

Patchouli is a tropical plant native to the Philippines and Indonesia.

It never interested the ancient world, but was used in Asia as a repellent against moths.

As such, it entered Europe with fine silk shipments and was only really discovered by Western botanists in the Philippines for the modern perfume industry around 1840.

It wasn't long before patchouli oil's remarkable staying power made it an important fixative ingredient in the manufacture of fine perfumes and cosmetics.

 

The name comes from the Tamil word "patch" = green" and "ilai" = leave, that is "patchleaf", which became patchouli.

Description of plant / tree:

The plant, 60 to 120 cm high, is an "aromatic, herbaceous, perennial shrub, with erect stems, large green leaves and small white-pink flowers. The stems are hairy with a square section.

Leaves are opposite, broadly ovate, with coursely serrate to dentate margins; slightly fleshy, softly tomentose mainly on the underside, and dropping when mature. Mature leaves are 5-10 X 2.5-8cm, light to medium green in color, varying considerabley with location or cultivar.

The EO is contained mainly in glands on underside of leave

Product description:

Physical state: Viscous liquid
Odour: Warm, woody
Color: Yellow to brown
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.952 ; 0.975 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -60┬░ ; -40┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.505 ; 1.515 ]
Main components: Patchoulol, alpha-patchoulene, bêta-caryophyllene, bêta-patchoulene, bêta-elemene, norpatchoulenol, pogostol.


Patchouli DM

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Indonesia
Botanical origin: Pogostemon cablin Benth
Part of plant used: Leaves
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8014-09-3
CAS-EINECS: 84238-39-1
EINECS: 282-493-4
FDA: Approved by the FDA as a flavor ( 21 CFR 172.510)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 353)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2838) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 193
   Patchouli DM

History & Origin:

Patchouli is a tropical plant native to the Philippines and Indonesia.

It never interested the ancient world, but was used in Asia as a repellent against moths.

As such, it entered Europe with fine silk shipments and was only really discovered by Western botanists in the Philippines for the modern perfume industry around 1840.

It wasn't long before patchouli oil's remarkable staying power made it an important fixative ingredient in the manufacture of fine perfumes and cosmetics.

 

The name comes from the Tamil word "patch" = green" and "ilai" = leave, that is "patchleaf", which became patchouli.

Description of plant / tree:

The plant, 60 to 120 cm high, is an "aromatic, herbaceous, perennial shrub, with erect stems, large green leaves and small white-pink flowers. The stems are hairy with a square section.

Leaves are opposite, broadly ovate, with coursely serrate to dentate margins; slightly fleshy, softly tomentose mainly on the underside, and dropping when mature. Mature leaves are 5-10 X 2.5-8cm, light to medium green in color, varying considerabley with location or cultivar.

The EO is contained mainly in glands on underside of leave.

Product description:

Physical state: More or less viscous liquid
Odour: Warm, woody
Color: Pale to dark yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.950 ; 0.970 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -55┬░ ; -49┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.499 ; 1.519 ]
Main components: Patchoulol, alpha-patchoulene, bêta-caryophyllene, bêta-patchoulene, bêta-elemene, norpatchoulenol, pogostol.


Peppermint

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: France
Botanical origin: Mentha piperita
Part of plant used: Fresh leaves
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8006-90-4
CAS-EINECS: 84082-70-2
EINECS: 282-015-4
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 282)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2848) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 275
   Peppermint

History & Origin:

According to Ovid, Mentha comes from Mintha , the Greek name for a nymph that the jealous Persephone changed into mint. It seems that the Ancients used the Pennyroyal mint type.

The Chinese praised mints for their tranquillizing and antispasmodic properties.

Hippocrates considered it an aphrodisiac and Pliny esteemed their analgesic action. Greek and Roman added mint to milk to prevent spoilage and served the herb after meals as a digestive aid.

The three species of this peppermint hybrid plant may have travelled from Italy to Great Britain during the Shakespearian age, since Sole notes their presence in English gardens (Surrey) in 1780. From there, the Mitcham variety spread around the world. American peppermint cultivation began in 1816 with the plants initially imported from England. Around the 1950s production concentrated on the 'mucklands' of Michigan, which were originally swampy marshlands.

 

Did you know that ?

Mint is used as an insect repellent, as rats and mice intensely dislike its smell.

Description of plant / tree:

Peppermint is a sterile hybrid of Mentha aquatica and Mentha viridis .

It was not known, with certainty until the end of the XVIIIth century.

All mints are perennial plants, by virtue of stolons emission that layer.

Peppermint reaches 60 cm high, and the crimson ( rubescens ) or white erect stems ( pallescens ) bear fragrant, lanceolate, narrow, dark green, 7 cm long leaves. The underside of the leaf sometimes shows fine hair and a large number of oil glands. The coarsely serrated leaves can be pure green to reddish green. Most often the flowers are violet dark coloured, and laid out in compact spikes of glomerules in the axils of the upper leaves.

According to the colour, shape and essential oil composition, there are the following differences:

1) Mentha piperita (L.) var. piperata forma rubescens Camus or black peppermint with dark stems, hybrid of Mentha viridis L. x Mentha aquatica L., with 2 subspecies: vulgaris (Mitcham) and sylvestris (Hungary). It has thicker stems than the white and grows higher. It is more prolific in oil and stronger. Black-stem peppermint has small, smooth, slightly pointed dark green leaves, purplish-black stems and pale purple flowers.

2) Mentha piperita (L.) var. piperata forma pallescens or white peppermint with clear stems (Roman). Synonym: Mentha piperita L. var. officinalis L. forma pallescens Camus.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Minty
Color: Colorless to light yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0,899 ; 0,911]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [-32┬░ ; -18┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1,457 ; 1,465]
Main components: 1,8-cineole, Menthol, Menthone, Menthofurane


Petitgrain Bigarade

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Egypt
Botanical origin: Citrus aurantium
Part of plant used: Leaves and twiglets
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8016-44-2
CAS-EINECS: 72968-50-4
EINECS: 277-143-2
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 136)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2855) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 194
   Petitgrain Bigarade

History & Origin:

It was a native tree to the Far East, and widespread over India and Persia. It was unknown to the Romans, even at their height and was introduced into the Mediterranean area by Arabs in the Xth century well before the sweet orange. Then, it was introduced to the Americas not long after its discovery by Colombus. The sweet orange arrived later with the return to Portugal of the explorer Vasco da Gama

The origin of the neroli name dates back to the XVII century, where Anne-Marie de La Tremoille, spouse of the Prince of Neroli, discovered an essential oil distilled from the flowers, which she used to perfume her gloves.

 

Did you know that ?

The word orange derives from Arabic "naranja" and from the Sanscrit "nagarunga" which means "the preferred fruit of elephants".

Description of plant / tree:

An evergreen tree that grows up to 10 m. The leaves are dark green on the upper surface, lighter green underneath. Compared with the sweet orange tree, the leaves are more lanceolate and pointed, with clearly winged leafstalk.

The flowers are white with five fleshy petals and very fragrant in April. The fruits have a rough skin and a bitter and acid pulp. It is the only citrus which can grow to the north of the orange tree limit (Italian lakes). In March, when the sap is rising, a small snowfall is enough to cause defoliation and bursting of the stems.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Somewhat harsh bitter sweet lemon-like floral odor.
Color: Colorless to pale yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0.881 ; 0.893 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [-6┬░ ; -1┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.455 ; 1.465 ]
Main components: Geraniol, Geranyl acetate, Limonene, Linalool, Linalyl acetate, Ocimene, Alpha-terpineol


Petitgrain Mandarin

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Egypt
Botanical origin: Citrus reticulata
Part of plant used: Leaves and twiglets
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8014-17-3
CAS-EINECS: 84929-38-4
EINECS: 284-521-0
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 142)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2854) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 6423
   Petitgrain Mandarin

History & Origin:

The Mandarins are native to South East Asia (Southern China, Vietnam, Assam and North of Burma).

The Mandarin tree was imported from Indochina in 1828 and planted in the western part of the Mediterranean basin spreading into all continents between the Equator and the latitudes 40┬░-54┬░ North and South.

Description of plant / tree:

The Mandarin tree is 5 to 8 m high, more or less thorny, with lanceolate leaves.

Axillary flowers are small and white-coloured.

Fruits, often oblate, have a thin and non adherent skin, orange to red-coloured. The pip's embryo has a particular green colour.

It was crossbred with the bitter orange tree in Algeria by Father Clement; the Mandarin Tree has produced the clementine tree, the fruit of which is more precocious and almost seedless. With present agronomic knowledge, it is quite possible to grow seedless mandarins.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Fruity, bitter
Color: Pale to orange yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0.970 ; 1.040]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [0┬░ ; +15┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.5240 ;1.5470 ]
Main components: p-cymene, Methyl N-methyl anthranilate, Limonene, Alpha-pinene, Beta-pinene, Gamma-terpinene


Petitgrain Paraguay

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Paraguay
Botanical origin: Citrus aurantium
Part of plant used: Leaves and twiglets
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8016-44-2
CAS-EINECS: 72968-50-4
EINECS: 277-143-2
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 136)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2855) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 194
   Petitgrain Paraguay

History & Origin:

It was a native tree to the Far East, and widespread over India and Persia. It was unknown to the Romans, even at their height and was introduced into the Mediterranean area by Arabs in the Xth century well before the sweet orange. Then, it was introduced to the Americas not long after its discovery by Colombus. The sweet orange arrived later with the return to Portugal of the explorer Vasco da Gama

The origin of the neroli name dates back to the XVII century, where Anne-Marie de La Tremoille, spouse of the Prince of Neroli, discovered an essential oil distilled from the flowers, which she used to perfume her gloves.

 

Did you know that ?

The word orange derives from Arabic "naranja" and from the Sanscrit "nagarunga" which means "the preferred fruit of elephants".

Description of plant / tree:

An evergreen tree that grows up to 10 m. The leaves are dark green on the upper surface, lighter green underneath. Compared with the sweet orange tree, the leaves are more lanceolate and pointed, with clearly winged leafstalk.

The flowers are white with five fleshy petals and very fragrant in April. The fruits have a rough skin and a bitter and acid pulp. It is the only citrus which can grow to the north of the orange tree limit (Italian lakes). In March, when the sap is rising, a small snowfall is enough to cause defoliation and bursting of the stems.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Somewhat harsh bitter sweet lemon-like floral odor.
Color: Colorless to pale yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [0.881 ; 0.893 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [-6┬░ ; -1┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.455 ; 1.465 ]
Main components: Geraniol, Geranyl acetate, Limonene, Linalool, Linalyl acetate, Ocimene, Alpha-terpineol


Red Mandarin

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Italy
Botanical origin: Citrus reticulata Blanco
Part of plant used: Zest
Manufacture: Cold expression
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8008-31-9
CAS-EINECS: 84929-38-4
EINECS: 284-521-0
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 142)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. (3041) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 1095
   Red Mandarin

History & Origin:

The Mandarins are native to South East Asia (Southern China, Vietnam, Assam and North of Burma).

The Mandarin tree was imported from Indochina in 1828 and planted in the western part of the Mediterranean basin spreading into all continents between the Equator and the latitudes 40┬░-54┬░ North and South.

It is very likely the mandarin owes its name, via Italian " mandarino ", to the powerful Chinese mandarins for whom this fruit was intended.

 

Did you know that?

It was crossbred with the bitter orange tree in Algeria by Father Clement; the Mandarin Tree has produced the clementine tree, the fruit of which is more precocious and almost seedless.

Description of plant / tree:

The Mandarin tree is 5 to 8 m high, more or less thorny, with lanceolate leaves.

Axillary flowers are small and white-coloured.

Fruits, often oblate, have a thin and non adherent skin, orange to red-coloured.

The pip's embryo has a particular green colour.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Typical of mandarin, fruity
Color: Red to dark Red
Density at 20┬░C: [0,843 ; 0,853]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ +69┬░ ; +79┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1,4690 ; 1,4790]
Main components: Limonene, Alpha-pinene, Beta-pinene, Gamma-terpinene


Rose

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Bulgaria
Botanical origin: Rosa Damascena
Part of plant used: Fresh Flowers
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8007-01-0
CAS-EINECS: 90106-38-0
EINECS: 290-260-3
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 405)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2989) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 425
   Rose

History & Origin:

If according to geologists and palaeontologists, the rose appeared before mankind, it is recognised that the trace of the wild rose originated in the XIIst century B.C. It was Rosa gallica , mother of numerous modern roses, that the Greeks succeed grafting in order to get, according to Herodote, a rose with 15 to 20 petals.

Syria is its country of origin. Anicenna, the 10th century Persian physician, used the rose as his first plant to distill and a rose distillery existed in 1612 in Shiraz, Persia.

The Damas rose cultivated by Persians, was brought back by crusaders. The knight Robert de Brie planted it in his Castle in Champagne between 1254 and 1276. It was introduced to Bulgaria around 1500 during the invasion of the Balkan peninsula by Turks, but its growth began only in the second half of the XVIIth century. It was only around 1894 that the rose was transported into Bulgaria and Turkey under the name of rose of Kazanlik.

According to Topalov (1964), the rose of Kazanlik is different from the original rose Damas.

 

Homer's allusions to the rose in the Iliad and Odyssey are the earliest records, and Sappho, the Greek poetess, writing about 600 B.C., selects the Rose as the Queen of Flowers.

The first preparation of rosewater by Avicenna was in the Tenth century. It was between 1582 and 1612 that the oil of "rose Otto" was discovered, as recorded in two separate histories of the Grand Mogul, by double distillation for recovery of part of phenyl ethyl alcohol, dissolved in the first distillation rose waters.

 

Did you know that ?

The word rosa comes from the Greek word rodon (red), and the rose of the Ancients was of a deep crimson colour, which probably suggested the fable of its springing from the blood of Adonis.

Description of plant / tree:

A high shrub with branches, usually covered with uneven thorns, the largest scythe-shaped, mixed with bristles.

The leaves are composed of five or seven leaflets smooth on the upper surface, pubescent or hairy on the under; simply toothed, the teeth are usually hairy, sometimes glandulous.

Flowerstalks, hispid, glandulous.

Pink flowers in multifloral and open clusters, longer than the leaves and fragrant. Sepals are hairy or glandulous, shorter than the petals and reflexed. There is a build-up of odorous principles in the cells of the epidermal hotbed petals. The maximum rate of odorous principles takes place between 7 and 9 a.m.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Typical
Color: Light to dark yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.8480 ; 0.8610 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -5┬░ ; -2┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.4530 ; 1.4640 ]
Main components: Citronellol, Damascenone, Geraniol, Linalool, Phenylethyl alcohol, Terpinene-4-ol


Rosemary

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Tunisia
Botanical origin: Rosmarinus officinalis
Part of plant used: Fresh flowering tops
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8000-25-7
CAS-EINECS: 84604-14-8
EINECS: 283-291-9
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 406)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2992) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 222
   Rosemary

History & Origin:

Well known in ancient times, rosemary was used in funeral rituals by Egyptian embalmers, then by Athenians and Romans where it symbolizes immortality. It was devoted to Venus.

This balsamic plant was quoted in the "Capitulaire de Villis" and was introduced into gardens in the Middle Ages, like the Saint-Gall monastery dating from IXth century.

Its medicinal properties are described in Arabic treatises of the XIIIth century (Cogliati, 1976) but its medicinal reputation comes from the "Eau de la Reine de Hongrie". This 72 year old crippled Queen retrieved her youth and beauty drinking the famous elixir, and had a proposal of marriage from the King of Poland.

Did you know that?

The legend explains the blue color of the small flowers of rosemary, by telling that just before giving birth to Jesus, the Virgin Mary would have thrown its blue cape on a rosemary which grew to the entrance of the cowshed … And it is so, that of whites, the flowers of the rosemary became blue!

Description of plant / tree:

Rosemary is a 60 cm to 1.5 m tall bush.

Each plant is very bushy, with numerous branches.

It has small needle shaped leaves that remain evergreen all the year long. They are abundant, narrow, opposing, and clear on their lower face. It has blue flowers that are stained with violet inside.

The small bilabium flower has 2 petals at the upper lip and 3 petals at the lower lip.

Rosemary blooming can spread throughout the year. 

There are many ornamental varieties both prostrate ( Prostratus or creeping rosemary) and upright, blue (Tuscan blue), pink and white flowers and some more hardy than others (Arp and Hill Hardy).

 

Did you know that ?

Bees that gather rosemary pollen produce a nice honey which is called "Narbonnes's honey" and is very tasty and perfumed.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Typical
Color: Colorless to pale yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.907 ; 0.920 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -2┬░ ; +5┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.464 ; 1.470]
Main components: Cin├ęol 1-8, alpha and b├¬ta pin├ęne, camphre


Sandalwood, Tanzania

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Tanzania
Botanical origin: Osyris lanceolata
Part of plant used: Wood
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-EINECS: 91770-46-6
EINECS: 294-831-8
   Sandalwood, Tanzania

History & Origin:

Osyris lanceolata is the African Sandalwood , used for its scented wood and to extract essential oil.

The hemi-parasitic plant is found from South Africa to Zimbabwe and east Africa, including Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. It grows in rocky areas or along the margins of dry forest, but is usually not abundant in any one place.

 

Description of plant / tree:

Osyris lanceolata is a large, slender hardy shrub or a small tree (7-10 m tall).

This multi-stemmed, evergreen hemi-parasitic plant has a round to irregular canopy and a grey smooth bark (later thick and rough).
Leaves sparse, blue-green, simple, alternate, lanceolate, sometimes eggshaped,slightly glaucous, thick in texture, smooth with a waxy bloom,crowded along the stems; the apex is broadly tapering to rounded with a fine, sharp tip.
Flowers small, unisexual, yellow-green, becoming red when ripe; borne in leaf axils in short panicles or clusters of 2-3 flowers. Male flowers in axillary cymes, female solitary; all floral parts in fours.
Fruit small, edible, 1-seeded drupe, about 1 cm long, fleshy, egg-shaped, and green at first, turning yellow and becoming bright red to purple-black when ripe.

Product description:

Physical state: Viscous liquid
Odour: Woody, sweet, balsamic
Color: Pale yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0,946 ; 0,966 ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.490 ; 1.520 ]


Santalwood, India

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: India
Botanical origin: Sandalum album
Part of plant used: Wood
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8006-87-9
CAS-EINECS: 84787-70-2
EINECS: 284-111-1
FDA: Approved by the FDA as a flavor ( 21 CFR 172.510)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 420)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 3005) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 223
   Santalwood, India

History & Origin:

Santalum album is native of SE India, Malaysia and the island of Timor where it grows in dense moist forests.

The wood and the Essential Oil of sandalwood held and still hold a large presence in Indian religious ceremonies, more from their smoke and flavour qualities and in the sculpture of religious ornaments in its very soft wood, than by their medicinal virtues. It is mentioned in the most ancient Sanskrit literature, but to this day there does not seem be a significant trade between India, China and their western neighbours.

In Egypt, it has been proven that it was used in the 17th century BC for embalming, and came from countries called "Pont" located on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

In Europe, we had to wait until the 5th century A.D., at the time of the Red Sea expedition, to see it mentioned in "Cosmas Indikopleustes" written works. However European medicine only really used sandalwood at the end of the 18th century.

Description of plant / tree:

This is a parasitical tree 8 to 10 m high with evergreen foliage, which fixes its suckers on the roots of nearby trees, and which blooms almost all year long.

The sucking organ called "haustorium" is nothing less than a root used as a tool in the service of the plant's parasitism. It has opposite, oval leaves terminating in a point.

The bark is dark grey and vertically furrowed on the old trees.

Flowers are small, greenish, dark red or yellow, composed of four stamens only, arising from the calyx.arranged in a symmetrical shape and they have no fragrance.

Product description:

Physical state: Viscous liquid
Odour: Woody, sweet, warm
Color: Colorless to yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0,968 ; 0,983 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -21┬░ ; -12┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1,502 ; 1,509 ]
Main components: Santalols, sesquiterp├ęnic alcohol


Sweet marjoram

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Egypt
Botanical origin: Origanum majorana L.
Part of plant used: Leaves
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8015-01-8
CAS-EINECS: 84082-58-6
EINECS: 282-004-4
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.10)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 316)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2663) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 460
   Sweet marjoram

History & Origin:

Origanum majorana is native to central Europe and minor Asia.

It was cultivated in ancient Egypt 3000 years ago, where it was called the Osiris plant. It was also cultivated in Greece and Italy where according to the legend, the Marjoram would have received its delicious fragrance and certainly all its aromatic properties, of the goddess of the love: Aphrodite.┬á It crowned the head of the newlyweds to wear them happiness and favor their fertility … And today still we lend it aphrodisiac virtues!

It was used in crown making and as an aromatic and medicinal plant. Sweet marjoram has grown so profusely in Sicily that it remains to this day on the oat of arms of the ancient city of Marjora from which it gets its name.

It began to be cultivated in France in the Middle Ages but was progressively forgotten until, at the beginning of the XVIIth century, its name was stolen by the native common oregano (which is why centuries later confusion still persists). It remains in use in other countries of central and southern Europe.

The name Origanum, from the Greek "origanos" comes from "oros" = mountain and "ganos" = glamour, that is, "the plant embellishing the mountains."

 

 

Description of plant / tree:

Cultivated varieties : There is no production in France. Hungary produces the "Uszodi" and "Francia" varieties, Czechoslovakia the "Marcelka" and Poland the "Mirasch". Marjoram from Egypt is the commercial benchmark.

Description : This is a small fragile plant, in clumps 20 to 50 cm high with a very aromatic fragrance. Marjoram is hardy in North Africa, biennial in the Mediterranean area, but does not reproduce in the Paris area. It flowers in July/ August; they are almost invisible, pinkish-white coloured, grouped in globular spikes of shell-like curved bracts. It has an erect, angular and hairy stem. Its greyish-coloured leaves are hairy on both sides and the bracts in small shell-like form, helping to distinguish marjoram from oregano, which has pink flowers and no shell-like bracts.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Spicy, aromatic
Color: Yellow to orange
Density at 20┬░C: [0.880 ; 0.910]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [+12┬░ ; +24┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: .[4700 ; 1.4780]
Main components: Sabinene, Terpinene-4-ol, Gamma-terpinene, Alpha-terpinene


Tagetes

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Egypt
Botanical origin: Tagetes minuta Syn : Tagetes glandulifera
Part of plant used: Air parts with flowers or shortly after bloom
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8016-84-0
CAS-EINECS: 91770-75-1
EINECS: 294-862-7
FDA: Approved by the FDA as a flavor ( 21 CFR 172.510)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 443)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 3040) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 998
   Tagetes

History & Origin:

Tagetes minuta is native to the temperate grasslands and mountain regions of southern South America, including the countries of Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, and in the Chaco region of Paraguay. Since the time of the Spanish Conquest, it has been introduced into Europe, Asia, Africa, Madagascar, India, Australia, and Hawaii.

The name Tagete comes from Tages , divine child, grandson of Jupiter, whose sacred words where recorded in the libri Tagetici books, the source of knowledge for the Etruscans.

In South Africa during the Boer War, T. minuta was introduced everywhere by the English cavalry as the seeds were mixed with the fodder intended for horses. Now, as a weed, the plant is a nuisance to farmers. Not even cattle graze on it.

Description of plant / tree:

Herbaceous annual aromatic plant, which can reach 2 to 3 m high.

The leaves are divided, linear, lanceolate and they are 7 to 15 cm long.

The flowers yellowish-green. The essential oil is produced in the secretory hairs of the floral corolla, as well as in the leave's pustules.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Characteristic
Color: Yellow to brown
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.840 ; 0.920 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ -0┬░ ; +14┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.4680 ; 1.4980 ]
Main components: Tagetone, d-limonene, ocimene and 2,6-dimethyl-7-octen-4-one


Tea tree

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Madagascar
Botanical origin: Melaleuca alternilolia
Part of plant used: Leaves and terminal twigs
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 68647-73-4
CAS-EINECS: 85085-48-9
EINECS: 285-377-1
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Admissable ( COE No. 275)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 18 ( 3902) Newberne,1998
RIFM Id: 1176
   Tea tree

History & Origin:

The group Melaleuca includes about 150 species of trees and bushes, better known as tea trees.

The name comes from melas (black) and leukos (white) because the bark is dark on the trunk and on the old branches, while it is white on young small branches.

The generic term tea tree covers this large group of botanical species. It is a popular denomination, which originated in the XVIII th century, when the sailors of Captain Cook used it as a substitute for tea. Its medicinal properties were first noticed, in Australia in 1788 (Carson CF, 1993).

 

Did you know that ?

During World War Two, the Australian Medical Corps provided tea tree EO in flasks for the soldiers, to fight against cutaneous diseases.

Description of plant / tree:

Melaleuca alternifolia is one of the smaller tea trees from southeastern Australia, up to 5 m high. It is a hardy tree with an extensive root system which grows rapidly. But it hybridizes freely with other members of this genus.

The leaves are narrow, 2 cm long, sharp, hairless and alternate (hence the botanical name alternifolia ).

In spring, the small, white cream-coloured flowers with 5 petals are irregularly scattered on the floral spike.

Fruits are tiny woody capsules which keep their germination power during 3 years or more.

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Warm, spicy
Color: Colorless to pale yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0,885 ; 0,906 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ +5┬░ ; +15┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.475 ; 1,482 ]
Main components: p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, Terpinene-4-ol, Gamma-terpinene, Alpha-terpinene


Vetiver

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Haïti
Botanical origin: Vetiveria zizanioides
Part of plant used: Partially dried roots
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8016-96-4
CAS-EINECS: 84238-29-9
EINECS: 282-490-8
FDA: Approved by the FDA as a flavor ( 21 CFR 172.510)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 470)
RIFM Id: 206
   Vetiver

History & Origin:

This great herbaceous plant is native to India where it has been used for centuries as incense and perfume.

Its name comes from the Tamil word vettiveru .

Moguls used the khus-khus tatti, braided mats of vetiver roots, soaked in water and hung in order to perfume houses.

French merchants discovered this plant with a subtle flavour and propagated it in Bourbon island, Louisiana and Haiti. Colbert (1619-1683), minister of Finance of Louis XIV, encouraged the development of French perfumery by new plantations on Bourbon island.

In India and Sri Lanka the essence is known as "the oil of tranquility".

Description of plant / tree:

It is a large bushy grass with long, with very narrow and rigid leaves that can reach 2 m high.
Inflorescences are in spike form, in pairs on 6-12 stems.
Fibrous and fragrant thin roots, penetrating 2 m deep in the soil.
Vetiver is very useful in countries concerned by soil erosion.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Viscous liquid
Odour: Warm woody
Color: Yellow to light brown
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0,980 ; 1,005 ]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [ +22┬░ ; +48┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1,516 ; 1,527 ]
Main components: Beta-caryophyllene, Alpha-vetivone, Beta-vetivone, Beta-vetivene, Isovalesenol, Khusimol


Yellow Mandarin

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Italy
Botanical origin: Citrus reticulata Blanco
Part of plant used: Zest
Manufacture: Cold expression
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8008-31-9
CAS-EINECS: 84929-38-4
EINECS: 284-521-0
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 142)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. (3041) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 1095
   Yellow Mandarin

History & Origin:

The Mandarins are native to South East Asia (Southern China, Vietnam, Assam and North of Burma).

The Mandarin tree was imported from Indochina in 1828 and planted in the western part of the Mediterranean basin spreading into all continents between the Equator and the latitudes 40┬░-54┬░ North and South.

It is very likely the mandarin owes its name, via Italian " mandarino ", to the powerful Chinese mandarins for whom this fruit was intended.

 

Did you know that?

It was crossbred with the bitter orange tree in Algeria by Father Clement; the Mandarin Tree has produced the clementine tree, the fruit of which is more precocious and almost seedless.

Description of plant / tree:

The Mandarin tree is 5 to 8 m high, more or less thorny, with lanceolate leaves.

Axillary flowers are small and white-coloured.

Fruits, often oblate, have a thin and non adherent skin, orange to red-coloured.

The pip's embryo has a particular green colour.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Typical of mandarin, peely, pithy and fruity
Color: Yellow to Greenish
Density at 20┬░C: [0.8450 ; 0.8550]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [+70┬░ ; +80┬░ ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.4700 ; 1.4800 ]
Main components: Limonene, Alpha-pinene, Beta-pinene, Gamma-terpinene


Ylang-Ylang Extra

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Madagascar or Comores
Botanical origin: Cananga odorata
Part of plant used: Fresh Flowers
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8006-81-3
CAS-EINECS: 83863-30-3
EINECS: 281-092-1
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 103)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 3119) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 6614
   Ylang-Ylang Extra

History & Origin:

The use of this plant native to the Moluccas or China is lost in the mists of time : religious offering, medicinal plant for cream or infusion in coconut oil, perfume and ornamental tree.

It was imported to Reunion in 1884.

The Philippines ylang was destroyed by Japanese in World War II.

In the Molucca Islands, an ointment is made from ylang ylang and curcuma flowers in a coconut oil base for cosmetic and hair care, All kinds of dermatological diseases, to prevent fever, insect bites and fight infections.

Ylang ylang means 'the flower of flowers' in Malay.

The flower is picked on trees of 25 m of top and can be pink, mauve or yellow have of all time symbolized the love and the marriage bonds. In Indonesia, for example, the tradition wants that flowers of Ylang-ylang are spread on the coat of the newlyweds to inspire them!

Its essential oil makes the happiness of luxury perfumes and certain precious cosmetics. Of a low yield, it is necessary to count 100 kg of flowers to extract 2 liters of oil.


 

Did you know that?

The quality called EXTRA of essential oil of Ylang-Ylang is the most appreciated by the perfumers because it is also the most nice-smelling. There are three other qualities of oil of Ylang-Ylang, classified according to the time of distillation which they underwent: first, second and third.
The smell of the third is softer and balsamic, more afforested, and firmer.

Description of plant / tree:

It is a tropical tree 25 m high, with a straight trunk and branches in horizontal arrangement with few small branches.

The evergreen foliage has alternate leaves 18 cm long and 7 cm wide.

Pink, mauve or yellow  flowers in bunches at the leave's axils.

The fruit is a green berry with a sweet and fragrant pulp.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Flowery, jasmin, characteristic
Color: Pale to dark yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.950 , 0.976 ]
Optical rotation at 20°C: [ -42° ; €-20° ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.493 , 1.509 ]
Main components: Benzyl acetate, Beta-caryophyllene, Geranyl acetate, Linalool, Germacrene-D, Methyl-para-cresol, Farnesene, Benzyl benzoate


Ylang-Ylang First

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Madagascar or Comores
Botanical origin: Cananga odorata
Part of plant used: Fresh Flowers
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8006-81-3
CAS-EINECS: 83863-30-3
EINECS: 281-092-1
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 103)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 3119) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 6614
   Ylang-Ylang First

History & Origin:

The use of this plant native to the Moluccas or China is lost in the mists of time : religious offering, medicinal plant for cream or infusion in coconut oil, perfume and ornamental tree.

It was imported to Reunion in 1884.

The Philippines ylang was destroyed by Japanese in World War II.

In the Molucca Islands, an ointment is made from ylang ylang and curcuma flowers in a coconut oil base for cosmetic and hair care, All kinds of dermatological diseases, to prevent fever, insect bites and fight infections.

Ylang ylang means 'the flower of flowers' in Malay.

The flower is picked on trees of 25 m of top and can be pink, mauve or yellow have of all time symbolized the love and the marriage bonds. In Indonesia, for example, the tradition wants that flowers of Ylang-ylang are spread on the coat of the newlyweds to inspire them!

Its essential oil makes the happiness of luxury perfumes and certain precious cosmetics. Of a low yield, it is necessary to count 100 kg of flowers to extract 2 liters of oil.


 

Did you know that?

The quality called EXTRA of essential oil of Ylang-Ylang is the most appreciated by the perfumers because it is also the most nice-smelling. There are three other qualities of oil of Ylang-Ylang, classified according to the time of distillation which they underwent: first, second and third.
The smell of the third is softer and balsamic, more afforested, and firmer.

Description of plant / tree:

It is a tropical tree 25 m high, with a straight trunk and branches in horizontal arrangement with few small branches.

The evergreen foliage has alternate leaves 18 cm long and 7 cm wide.

Pink, mauve or yellow  flowers in bunches at the leave's axils.

The fruit is a green berry with a sweet and fragrant pulp.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Flowery, jasmin, characteristic
Color: Pale to dark yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.933 ; 0.960 ]
Optical rotation at 20°C: [ -46° ; -€“24° ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.495 ; 1.510 ]
Main components: Benzyl acetate, Beta-caryophyllene, Geranyl acetate, Linalool, Germacrene-D, Methyl-para-cresol, Farnesene, Benzyl benzoate


Ylang-Ylang full

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Madagascar or Comores
Botanical origin: Cananga odorata
Part of plant used: Fresh Flowers
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8006-81-3
CAS-EINECS: 83863-30-3
EINECS: 281-092-1
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 103)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 3119) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 6614
   Ylang-Ylang full

History & Origin:

The use of this plant native to the Moluccas or China is lost in the mists of time : religious offering, medicinal plant for cream or infusion in coconut oil, perfume and ornamental tree.

It was imported to Reunion in 1884.

The Philippines ylang was destroyed by Japanese in World War II.

In the Molucca Islands, an ointment is made from ylang ylang and curcuma flowers in a coconut oil base for cosmetic and hair care, All kinds of dermatological diseases, to prevent fever, insect bites and fight infections.

Ylang ylang means 'the flower of flowers' in Malay.

The flower is picked on trees of 25 m of top and can be pink, mauve or yellow have of all time symbolized the love and the marriage bonds. In Indonesia, for example, the tradition wants that flowers of Ylang-ylang are spread on the coat of the newlyweds to inspire them!

Its essential oil makes the happiness of luxury perfumes and certain precious cosmetics. Of a low yield, it is necessary to count 100 kg of flowers to extract 2 liters of oil.


 

Did you know that?

The quality called EXTRA of essential oil of Ylang-Ylang is the most appreciated by the perfumers because it is also the most nice-smelling. There are three other qualities of oil of Ylang-Ylang, classified according to the time of distillation which they underwent: first, second and third.
The smell of the third is softer and balsamic, more afforested, and firmer.

Description of plant / tree:

It is a tropical tree 25 m high, with a straight trunk and branches in horizontal arrangement with few small branches.

The evergreen foliage has alternate leaves 18 cm long and 7 cm wide.

Pink, mauve or yellow  flowers in bunches at the leave's axils.

The fruit is a green berry with a sweet and fragrant pulp.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Flowery, characteristic
Color: Pale to dark yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.922 ; 0.942 ]
Optical rotation at 20°C: [ -58° ; –30° ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.496 ; 1.511 ]
Main components: Benzyl acetate, Beta-caryophyllene, Geranyl acetate, Linalool, Germacrene-D, Methyl-para-cresol, Farnesene, Benzyl benzoate


Ylang-Ylang Third

Label: 100% pure and natural Essential oil
Country of origin: Madagascar or Comores
Botanical origin: Cananga odorata
Part of plant used: Fresh Flowers
Manufacture: Steam distillation
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8006-81-3
CAS-EINECS: 83863-30-3
EINECS: 281-092-1
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 103)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 3119) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 6614
   Ylang-Ylang Third

History & Origin:

The use of this plant native to the Moluccas or China is lost in the mists of time : religious offering, medicinal plant for cream or infusion in coconut oil, perfume and ornamental tree.

It was imported to Reunion in 1884.

The Philippines ylang was destroyed by Japanese in World War II.

In the Molucca Islands, an ointment is made from ylang ylang and curcuma flowers in a coconut oil base for cosmetic and hair care, All kinds of dermatological diseases, to prevent fever, insect bites and fight infections.

Ylang ylang means 'the flower of flowers' in Malay.

The flower is picked on trees of 25 m of top and can be pink, mauve or yellow have of all time symbolized the love and the marriage bonds. In Indonesia, for example, the tradition wants that flowers of Ylang-ylang are spread on the coat of the newlyweds to inspire them!

Its essential oil makes the happiness of luxury perfumes and certain precious cosmetics. Of a low yield, it is necessary to count 100 kg of flowers to extract 2 liters of oil.


 

Did you know that?

The quality called EXTRA of essential oil of Ylang-Ylang is the most appreciated by the perfumers because it is also the most nice-smelling. There are three other qualities of oil of Ylang-Ylang, classified according to the time of distillation which they underwent: first, second and third.
The smell of the third is softer and balsamic, more afforested, and firmer.

Description of plant / tree:

It is a tropical tree 25 m high, with a straight trunk and branches in horizontal arrangement with few small branches.

The evergreen foliage has alternate leaves 18 cm long and 7 cm wide.

Pink, mauve or yellow  flowers in bunches at the leave's axils.

The fruit is a green berry with a sweet and fragrant pulp.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Mobile liquid
Odour: Flowery, jasmin, characteristic
Color: Pale to dark yellow
Density at 20┬░C: [ 0.906 ; 0.925 ]
Optical rotation at 20°C: [ -72° ; -€“45° ]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [ 1.502 ; 1.513 ]
Main components: Benzyl acetate, Beta-caryophyllene, Geranyl acetate, Linalool, Germacrene-D, Methyl-para-cresol, Farnesene, Benzyl benzoate


Cassie Absolute

Label: 100% pure and natural Absolute
Country of origin: Egypt
Botanical origin: Acacia farnesiana Willd
Part of plant used: Fresh Flowers
Manufacture: The absolute is obtained by extraction with a volatile solvent, followed by glazing of the concrete
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8023-82-3
CAS-EINECS: 89958-31-6
EINECS: 289-655-3
FDA: Approved by the FDA as flavor ( 21 CFR 172.510)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 8)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2260) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 75
   Cassie Absolute

History & Origin:

Native to the Antilles (Santo Domingo), cassia was introduced to Europe in 1656 and came to thrive on the French Riviera for a long time before its first cousin, the mimosa Acacia dealbata .
 
Traditional uses :
- The seeds, containing an alkaloid, are used to kill rabid dogs in Brazil
- The bark is used as an astringent and demulcent

 

Description of plant / tree:

Thorny and evergreen shrub, with fine branches; can reach 5 to 6 m tall, but kept by the pruning at around 3 m to make easy picking of the flowers. Round or curved shape.
Its persistent green leaves, finely incised, are 12 cm long and are formed of many linear leaflets 5 mm long, with a leafstalk changed in limb.
The yellow, globulous and very fragrant flowers appear in August and the flowering goes on for 2 months.
In winter, the fruits are brown pods 5 to 8 cm long, containing black seeds, sought out by birds.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Viscous liquid
Odour: Warm, powerdery-spicy, herbaceous, floral
Color: Dark yellow to pale brown
Density at 20┬░C: [0.965 ; 1.010]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.486 ; 1.515]
Main components: alpha-amyrine, salicylate de m├ęthyle, alcool benzylique


Jasmine Absolute

Label: 100% pure and natural Absolute
Country of origin: Egypt or India
Botanical origin: Jasminum grandiflorum L
Part of plant used: Fresh Flowers
Manufacture: The absolute is obtained by extraction with a volatile solvent, followed by glazing of the concrete
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8022-96-6
CAS-EINECS: 84776-64-7
EINECS: 283-993-5
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 245)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2598) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 411
   Jasmine Absolute

History & Origin:

The plant is native to South East Asia and valued for the whiteness of its flowers and the sweetness of its perfume. Propagated for several centuries, Jasminum grandiflora has not suffered any variability.

From India to Mesopotamia, the Phoenicians carried jasmine to Carthage and to Catalonia. Some jasmine powder has been found on a Pharaoh mummy in the necropolis of Deil el-Bahri. It was one of the 60 components of "kyfi", the most famous Egyptian perfume. Romans and Greeks used jasmine pomade. The Roman Lucius Plotius, a triumvirate member, when hiding from his political enemies, was betrayed by the strong jasmine scent he was fond of. J. grandiflorum was introduced in Grasse in the XVIth century by Spanish sailors, hence the name "jasmine of Spain".

Between the two Wars, the production of Grasse reached 1500 tons, then decreased due to competition with Spain and Italy, and later replaced by those of Egypt, Morroco, India and China.

"Yasmin" is the Arabic name of jasmine, meaning "white flower". Possibly jasmine comes from the Greek word "iasis", joy.

Description of plant / tree:

An erect shrub, often climbing, with long sarmentous stems, jasmine has evergreen, opposing and pennaceous leaves, dark green coloured, petiolate, with 3 - 7 leaflets. The white and fragrant flowers bloom from June to September. They are laid out in from 3 to 8 corymbs and their corolla is funnel-shaped. The fruit is a globulous berry.

In the Grasse area, Jasminum grandiflora is grafted onto Jasminum officinalis to improve frost resistance up to an altitude of 900 m.

Product description:

Physical state: Viscous liquid
Odour: Plaisant, flowery, characteristic of Jasmine
Color: Reddish to amber brown
Density at 20┬░C: [0.930 ; 0.980]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [-0.55┬░ ; +0.55┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.480 ; 1.510]
Main components: benzyl acetate


Jasmine Sambac Absolute

Label: 100% pure and natural
Country of origin: India
Botanical origin: Jasminum Sambac
Part of plant used: Fresh Flowers
Manufacture: The absolute is obtained by extraction with a volatile solvent, followed by glazing of the concrete
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8022-96-6
CAS-EINECS: 91770-14-8
EINECS: 294-797-4
RIFM Id: 6665
   Jasmine Sambac Absolute

History & Origin:

Native to Arabia, Jasmine sambac or 'foul' was introduced in India by the Duke of Tuscany around 1690.
 
In India and Asia, its flowers are used to flavour jasmine tea, to built potpourris, sachets, garlangs and as part of temple offerings.


The Jasmine sambac is very popular in Indonesia. The archipelago of the Philippine moreover made its emblem because on the national flag we can see the flower of "Sampagita" there, local naming of the Jasmine sambac.
Over there, the women hide flowers of this variety of Jasmine in them hair to perfume them.

A traditional use wants that we apply the flowers of sambac Jasmine in cataplasm on the breast to stop the lactation. This use also listed in India was confirmed in 1988 thanks to a study which demonstrated that the flowers of sambac Jasmine had an effect similar to inhibitory medicines of the lactation.

The flower of Jasmine sambac has a smell is finer and light, sweetened that Jasminum grandiflorum

Description of plant / tree:

This evergreen plant is 2 to 3 m tall, with long stems needing support and is hardier than Jasmine grandiflorum .
 
The waxy leaves are opposite, glabrous, usually ovate or elliptic with prominent lateral nerves.
 
Flowering all year, principally in spring and summer, with upright bunches of thick waxy satin white heavily scented broad stars that last and will scent an entire room. The white flowers are 2.5 cm of diameter, on solitary or three-flowered terminal cymes.
 
The flower yield and strenght of fragrance varies substantially between cultivars; many are double flowered with rounded petals and globular buds, while single flowers have rounded multi-whorled petals and large buds to 3 cm diameter.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Viscous liquid
Odour: Plaisant, flowery
Color: Reddish to amber brown
Density at 20┬░C: [0.930 ; 0.980]
Optical rotation at 20┬░C: [-0.55┬░ ; +0.55┬░]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.4680 ;1.4800]
Main components: Alpha farn├ęs├Ęne, ac├ętate de benzyle, jasmonate de m├ęthyle


Orange flower absolute

Label: 100% pure and natural
Country of origin: Tunisia
Botanical origin: Citrus aurantium ssp amara
Part of plant used: Fresh Flowers
Manufacture: The absolute is obtained by extraction with a volatile solvent, followed by glazing of the concrete
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 8030-28-2
CAS-EINECS: 72968-50-4
EINECS: 277-143-2
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No. 136)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2818) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 252
   Orange flower absolute

History & Origin:

It was a native tree to the Far East, and widespread over India and Persia.
It was unknown to the Romans, even at their height and was introduced into the Mediterranean area by Arabs in the Xth century well before the sweet orange.
Then, it was introduced to the Americas not long after its discovery by Colombus.
The sweet orange arrived later with the return to Portugal of the explorer Vasco da Gama
The origin of the neroli name dates back to the XVII century, where Anne-Marie de La Tremoille, spouse of the Prince of Neroli, discovered an essential oil distilled from the flowers, which she used to perfume her gloves.
 
 
Did you know that ?
The word orange derives from Arabic "naranja" and from the Sanscrit "nagarunga" which means "the preferred fruit of elephants".

 

Description of plant / tree:

An evergreen tree that grows up to 10 m.
The leaves are dark green on the upper surface, lighter green underneath. Compared with the sweet orange tree, the leaves are more lanceolate and pointed, with clearly winged leafstalk.
The flowers are white with five fleshy petals and very fragrant in April.
The fruits have a rough skin and a bitter and acid pulp.
It is the only citrus which can grow to the north of the orange tree limit (Italian lakes). In March, when the sap is rising, a small snowfall is enough to cause defoliation and bursting of the stems.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Liquid
Odour: Plaisant, flowery
Color: Orange-red to dark brown
Density at 20┬░C: [0.905 ; 0.930]
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.475 ; 1.495]
Main components: linalol, linalyl acetate, farnesol, nerolidol


Violet leaves Absolute

Label: 100% pure and natural
Country of origin: Egypte
Botanical origin: Viola odorata
Part of plant used: Leaves
Manufacture: The absolute is obtained by extraction with a volatile solvent, followed by glazing of the concrete
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 90147-36-7
CAS-EINECS: 90147-36-7
EINECS: 290-427-0
FDA: Approved by the FDA as GRAS ( 21 CFR 182.20)
CoE: Included by the Council of Europe in the list of substances granted Approval ( COE No.482)
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 3110) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 703
   Violet leaves Absolute

History & Origin:

"Viola" would come from Greek "ion", formerly "vion" which named the mythological cow "Io".
Symbol of the great city Athens, the violet was one of the favourite flowers of the ancient Greece (Moazzo, 1999).
Venus, goddess of love and wife of Vulcan, god of fire and metals, rejected him until the day when he appeared in front of her, a crown of violets around her head.
After that Io was changed into a heifer, the earth came into violet's flowers to feed her. Its symbol is fidelity, as it is also, among the flowers of funeral, the one meaning the fidelity of the living to the dead.

 

Description of plant / tree:

A spontaneous and hardy species, very common in the plains of northern Europe and in medium mountains of southern Europe. Its thick stock gives out long stolons. The leaves are petiolate, radical, widely heart-shaped, these of stolons of the year, rounded in kidney shape. It blooms from February to May. The large and very fragrant flowers are most of the time dark purple. They have 5 unequal petals, of which the lower have a spur, the other 4 are raised high up. The fruit is a capsule opening by three valves in a three-pointed star.
There are numerous horticultural varieties:
1) Parma is a sterile clone with a duplicated flower, the leaf has a short leafstalk 8 - 10 cm. Only one blooming from January to March.
2) Victoria is a fertile clone with a floral dimorphism:
- the sterile flower being spread over October to March, is simple, with petals having a peduncle long from 20 to 30 cm, just as the leaf with a leafstalk having the same size.
- the sterile flower being spread over June to September, without petal and without market value.
 
Did you know that ? : The violet was first a medicinal plant by the flower, the seeds and the roots. The flower for sweets and candies (Toulouse), the flowers and leaves for bunches and finally the leaves for perfumes are used recently. Why not the flower for perfumes?
For one thing, because the yields of extraction, and above all the yields of distillation are extremely low. For another thing, the synthetic ionones allow reconstitution of violet perfumes. If at all costs a natural extract is wanted, the distillation of iris rhizome allows the isolation of irones, which have fragrance of violet flower. Therefore the leaves remain, which after extraction with volatile solvents, release an absolute with highly valued green notes.

 

Product description:

Physical state: Very viscous liquid
Odour: Green, floral violet odor
Color: Yellow to dark green
Density at 20┬░C: [0,970 ; 0.990]
Main components: 2-trans-6-cis-nonadien-1-al


Ambergris

Label: 100% pure & natural animal extract
Manufacture: Secretion of the bowel of the sperm whale Physeter Catodon
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 84836-94-2
CAS-EINECS: 84836-94-2
EINECS: 284-280-1
RIFM Id: 6027
   Ambergris

History & Origin:

The ambergris is a pathological secretion of the bowel of the sperm whale Physeter Catodon, irritated by the ingestion of the beaks of octopuses and squids, main food of the sperm whale, which we collect along the tropical and subtropical beaches.

It is constituted in 90 % of ambr├ę├»ne, derived of some cholesterol.

In the bowel, it is a black, semi-viscous secretion and of nauseous smell. In the contact of the air and the light, it oxidizes fast and hardens, being transformed into a pleasantly aromatic, marbled, greyish, waxy and transparent substance, where beaks are still integrated. Once warmed, it produces a very pleasant, soft and earthy aroma.

 

We used it in the Antiquity as the fixative spray of the rare perfumes because the ambergris has the faculty to prolong perfumes much more for a long time.
1000 years before Jesus Christ, the Chinese called it " the perfume of the spit of the dragon " (resulting from some saliva of dragons sleeping on the coastal rocks).

At the same time, the Arabs used it as medicine in the treatment of the cardiac and intellectual pathologies. They thought that the ambergris resulted from coastal sources. It was the same for the Greeks.

We believed for a long time that the ambergris and the amber had the same origine:les sea bed.

Marco Polo was the first one to associate it with sperm whales but as regurgitations of silt eaten in the oc├ęanes depths.
It is Doctors Schwediawer and Banks that identified it, in 1783, as a pathological production of the bowel of the sick sperm whales, by associating
it with the beaks of cuttlefishes and ingested octopuses.

In 1820, Carrenter and Furrier, two French chemists, isolated, characterized and named " ambr├ę├»ne " the main ingredient perfuming some ambergris.
Since then, there is a big market of search for chemical compounds in the perfume very close to that of the ambergris. They are all labdanoïdes terpenes, found in a big variety of plants.

 

The treaty of Washington and the actions of protection of marine mammals watch the business of the ambergris for years. It is forbidden in certain European countries and in United States of America.



A mass of 130 kg of ambergris was found in the atolls of Vannatu, in the Pacific, in 2004 and it was Cadima Path├ę who assured the sale.

Product description:

Physical state: Solid mass
Odour: Characteristic, powery
Color: Light grey to black


Castoreum

Label: 100% pure & natural animal extract
Manufacture: By alcoholic extraction of the macerated castoreum pods of the beaver, a by-product of the fur industry (Arctander,1960)
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 908023-83-4
CAS-EINECS: 8023-83-4
EINECS: 232-427-5
FEMA: Generally Recognized as Safe as a flavor ingredient - GRAS 3. ( 2261) Hall,1965
RIFM Id: 291
   Castoreum

History & Origin:

The castor├ęum was usually used since the Antiquity until the XVIIIth siecle. It was a part of the treatment medical of which in particular: wounds and surgical wounds, the fever and the headaches (normal because the castoreum contains some salicylic acid a component close to the aspirin).

It was also used as aphrodisaique. We also found it diverse uses in perfume shop.

The castor├ęum is one of six animal raw materials of the perfume shop with the musk, the ambergris, the chive, the beeswax and the hyraceum.
Its smell, aggressive in the pure state, becomes pleasantly soft and warm once the diluted castor├ęum and calls back the leather, the animal oil and the fur. It is used in the perfumes of amber type (or oriental), as well as in certain man perfumes.

However, the progress of the organic chemistry allows today to produce a synthetic equivalent which has necessarily all the delicacy of the natural castor├ęum.

Description of plant / tree:

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Product description:

Physical state: Solid mass
Density at 20┬░C: [0.955 ; 0.995] - 50% ETHANOL
Refractive index at 20┬░C: [1.4490 ; 1.4620] - 50% ETHANOL


Civette

Label: 100 pur & natural animal extract
Country of origin: By extraction of natural civet (Naves,1974)
  
  
CAS-TSCA: 68916-26-7
CAS-EINECS: 68916-26-7
EINECS: 272-826-1
RIFM Id: 352
   Civette

History & Origin:

The word "civet" derives from the Arabic zabad term indicating the musk and meaning foamy, via either from Italian " zibetto " or still from Catalan civetta. Arabic indicated the animal under the name of qa├í┬╣┬ş├í┬╣┬ş az-zab├ä├é┬üd, that means cat with musk, where from the other vernacular name.

The chive is a carnivorous mammal in the grey-yellowish coat stained with black, looking like the marten. The glands of this animal are emptied of their secretion once a week. The gross chive is cleansed by extraction in solvents and often put in infusion. The product is however more and more replaced by synthetic products and reconstructions.

The smell of the civet results from the civettone, substance contained in a white liquid produces by the anal glands of all Viverridae. This liquid possesses in the rough a very strong smell, with stenches of excrements, but once diluted it loosens a smell of musk and flower.

The secr├ętions of the anal glands of the chive was used in pharmacy and in the manufacturing of cigars or perfumes. Their use raises to more than 2 000 years; they had the reputation to be very appreciated by Cl├ęop├ótre.

 

Did you know that?

In past, the gross chive was sent in rather big horns of zebus to contain between 500 and 1 200 g of a yellow dough which turned rushed and hardened in time. The contents of the horn corresponded in four years of curettage of a chive.

Product description:

Physical state: Semi-solid to solid
Odour: Animal, strong
Color: Dark amber
Density at 20┬░C: [0,971 ; 0,991]
Main components: Civettone


We control the quality of our products on one hand thanks to our relationships favored with our suppliers selected for the quality of their raw materials and the seriousness of their methods of production and on the other hand by using an independent laboratory which verifies the physical measures (density, refractive index, ÔÇŽ), the chemical measures (If necessary: index of peroxide, content in aldehyde...) or make a Gas Chromatography.


For every delivery, our regulatory department will be able to complete  products questionnaires (in the present state of our knowledge) and to supply the statutory documents and the required certificates such as:

  • Material safety data sheet
  • Specification sheet
  • Analysis Certificate
  • IFRA┬á Certificate
  • Certificate of┬á purety
  • Certificate of naturality
  • Certificate of origin
  • Organic Certificate (ECOCERT FR-BIO-01)
  • Certificate of conformity with the Cosmetic regulation EC/1223/2009
  • Attestation on the presence of cosmetic allergens (directiv EC/2003/15)
  • Kosher Certificate
  • Attestation on the presence of food allergens
  • GMO Certificate
  • BSE Certificate
  • CMR Certificate

The information delivered on our site presents a strictly commercial character and concerned only the nature and the quality of the proposed products.

 


Notice for the curious:

The following information, as well as other numerous photos and videos illustrating the world of essential oils are available on the mosaic. Do not hesitate to go to glance there.


What means natural essential oil?

The ESSENCE or « ESSENTIAL OIL »: Is the fragrant material (often liquid) extracted from flowers, leafs or any part of fragrant plants. Most of the time one obtains the essence by water distillation, that means that the fragrances are brought b...
To know more about it

The Civet

The civet cat is a little mammal of the ferret family. Its name might come from the Arabic word zab─üd that designates the “musk cat”; it may also come from the Italian zibetto or from the Catalan civetta.   Its grey speckl...
To know more about it

Scent-bearing cell extraction

Cold absorption The absorption technique is based on the ability of animal fat (usually pork) to naturally absorb odours. It is particularly adapted to fragile flowers such as jasmine, tuberose, daffodil… In the XIXth Century, glass plates in ...
To know more about it

Absolutes & Concretes

Absolute:   Absolute is a particular plant extract (as essential oil is another).  The concrete or resinoid of the plant is washed in ethanol, resulting in a pure essence called absolute. The mix is then heated to extract the fragrant sce...
To know more about it

Crops calendar

...
To know more about it

Ambre gris

The ambergris is a substance secreted by the intestines of the sperm whale and is naturally ejected to the sea. It is composed of octopus beaks and other undigested squids. When in contact with air and sun, the rejected compound oxidises, hardens and transforms itself in a floating ...
To know more about it

The Castoreum

Castoreum was used a lot from Antiquity to the XVIIIth Century. It was integrated to medical treatments as for wounds, fever and headaches (indeed castoreum contains salicylic acid a component very close to aspirin).   It was also used for its aphrodisiac qualities....
To know more about it

The Musc

Musk is a brownish matter, coming from strong-smelling granules contained in a pocket under the belly of a specific deer, from the moschidae family from Central Asia and the Himalayas. These glands, more or less the size of half an orange, grow under the abdomen in the mating season...
To know more about it

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...
To know more about it

What means natural essential oil?

The ESSENCE or « ESSENTIAL OIL »:

Is the fragrant material (often liquid) extracted from flowers, leafs or any part of fragrant plants. Most of the time one obtains the essence by water distillation, that means that the fragrances are brought by the steam in a still or alembic. The Arabs invented this process in the Xth Century.

 

For some flowers, like the neroli (orange blossom), the effective return is of 1 for 1000; the harvest of 1000 kilos of freshly cut petals will produce 1 kilo of essential oil. This gives a good explanation to the high prices of some perfumery products.

 

One has to be conscious that this process doesn’t apply to citrus extraction. Cf. to  “A History of citrus essential oils extraction methods” chapter.

The essential oil of these fruits being very sensitive to heat, the extraction must be “cold”. The Italians have developed processes using mainly two type of machines, “pellatrice” and “sfumatrice”, that press the fruit to extract the essence from its skin. The return of citrus extraction is around 1%.

The Civet

The civet cat is a little mammal of the ferret family. Its name might come from the Arabic word zab─üd that designates the “musk cat”; it may also come from the Italian zibetto or from the Catalan civetta.

 

Its grey speckled fur is fine but the animal is bred mostly for its secretions. Under stress conditions, this carnivore synthesizes in his anal glands a substance whose fragrance reminds us from faeces. Once a week, a “curettage” consists in emptying the secretions from the bags. Purified by solvent extraction, the smelly paste becomes more floral and musky. This fragrance is considered as a “background” note very expensive and refined.

 

The civet cat is not killed to produce perfume! But the actual trend is to shift from raw material from animal origin to synthetic compositions.

 

The civet cat and its “animal” touch reminds us of our attraction for strong notes of perfume that one tends to proscribe. Thus 2000 years ago, Cleopatra and other very refined personalities used to crave for it…

Scent-bearing cell extraction

Cold absorption

The absorption technique is based on the ability of animal fat (usually pork) to naturally absorb odours. It is particularly adapted to fragile flowers such as jasmine, tuberose, daffodil… In the XIXth Century, glass plates in a frame (called a châssis) were covered with highly purified and odorless animal fat. The compound was then sticked with a fork to create furrows stuffed with petals of the botanical matter. In that way the « micro » drops of essence would disperse into the compound. Every day the depleted petals were removed and replaced with a fresh harvest of petals to saturate the fat with the essence. In three months, 1 kilo of the greasy mix was totally saturated with the essence of 3 kilos of flowers.

The saturation achieved, the fat is collected with a wooden spoon and after having filtered it, the enfleurage pomade was “washed” with alcohol. This step consisted in mixing the fat with alcohol. As soon as the mix is heated, the alcohol evaporates and remains a substance named the “absolute”. Around the 30’s this method was abandoned because too costly and labor-intensive.

 

Hot absorption

Antique Egyptians used this technique before it was developed in Grasse, France. It consisted in steeping flowers in large pots heated in a bain-marie. The mix was stirred during two hours. The day after, the flowers of the day before, are then removed with a flat sieve and replaced by a fresh harvest of flowers. This process was repeated more than 10 times. When the fat was saturated with the essence, the mixture was filtered to separate the fat from the flower essence. The paste obtained called “pomade” was then treated in the same way as for the cold absorption.

Rose centifolia, violet, orange blossom and blackcurrant were treated by this method.

 

Steam distillation

The principles of this method is explained in the « essential oil » section. This process was elaborated and then imported to Europe in the Xth Century by the Arabs. By the way, it is an Arabic word “Alambic” that designates the device used for the distillation. The botanic material is layed on railings or perforated trays. When the water is heated the steam goes through the plants bringing with it the scent-bearing components of flowers, roots, leafs…. The scented oil and the steam rise in a metal tube (the gooseneck) and then pass in a cooling battery. When it enters in contact with cold, the steam (re)condenses itself into water and oil before dripping in the collector below. As oil and water are not miscible it is now easy to separate them. This process is still used and is very efficient for lavender, vetiver, sandalwood, geranium leafs…it produces the “essence” or “essential oil”.

To get a kilo of pure essence, the distillation takes: between 4 000kg and 10 000kg of rose petals, 1 000kg of orange blossom, 600kg of geraniums, 500kg of camomile blossom, 330kg of patchouli leafs or 125 to 175kg of lavender.

 

Cold expression

Cold expression is used only for citrus fruits (orange, lemon, bergamot etc) for which the essential oils are contained within the peel. The extraction must be cold for these fruits because its essential oil is extremely sensitive to light and heat. The Italians have developed processes implying machines (pellatrice and sfumatrice) that press the fruit to extract the essence contained in the peel. These fruits are cold pressed and then the mixture obtained is centrifuged, to separate the essential oil from the fruit juice.

The output of lemon cold extraction is around 1%.

You may also refer to “scent-bearing cell extraction” or to “Citrus essential oil extraction methods” section.

 

Extraction using volatile solvents

Some fragile raw materials do not stand the water distillation; it is the case of jasmin, tuberose or mimosa. To capture their “aroma”, it requires the use of an extraction with a volatile solvent (often Hexane). This method is relatively recent (XIXth Century). As for distillation the plant extractor is filled up. The plant is then “washed” several times with Hexane that gets progressively saturated in essential oil. Just a slight heating will enable to evaporate the solvent. We then get the concrete (or resinoid for gums). The concrete has a wax texture sometime used by the perfume industry (iris concrete), but most of the time, it is “washed” with alcohol to obtain absolute (with a lighter smell). One can refer to the “Cold absorption” section.

 

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

Even more recent and adapted to extremely fragile spices like red pepper. It is equivalent to an extraction using volatile solvents but with carbon dioxide or CO2 liquid at high pressure and reaching a state called “supercritical”. This method enables to extract scent-bearing oils of a plant at a low temperature.

Absolutes & Concretes

Absolute:

 

Absolute is a particular plant extract (as essential oil is another).  The concrete or resinoid of the plant is washed in ethanol, resulting in a pure essence called absolute. The mix is then heated to extract the fragrant scents from the concrete and then frozen. The fat are therefore fixed and after decanting and filtering operations, the clearest part is collected. The filtered part is finally distilled under atmospherical pressure or under vacuum to remove the ethanol.

The absolute enters in many compositions in perfumery, in very subtle quantities. It takes absolute to be soluble in ethanol to be considered of good quality.

 

 

 

 

 

Concrete:

 

The concrete is an extraction using volatile solvent to dissolve the fragrance-bearing part of the plant.

Traditionally, the flowers were steeped in previously heated fats or oils. The fat was then washed with alcohol. Nowadays the solvents are called “volatile solvents” (ethanol, methanol, hexane). The raw material is mixed to these heated solvents that eventually evaporate leaving a more or less hard concrete paste.

 

(cf. “Scent-bearing cell extraction” chapter for more details.)

 

Crops calendar

Ambre gris

The ambergris is a substance secreted by the intestines of the sperm whale and is naturally ejected to the sea. It is composed of octopus beaks and other undigested squids.

When in contact with air and sun, the rejected compound oxidises, hardens and transforms itself in a floating mass. Once heated this raw material produces a sweet, sensual and amber-scented aroma. The scent lasts for many days. It is composed at 90% by ambreine that produces this typical fragrance. It is surprising to note that some cells very close to ambreine are to be found in a plant called the labdanum.

 

The sperm whale amber was already used in the Antiquity for its perfume and Chinese thought of it as a powerful aphrodisiac. At the same moment the Arabs, used to cure heart and brain diseases with amber. Until 1783, the provenance of amber was mysterious. That year two chemists, Drs. Schwediawer and Banks found out and proved the animal origin of amber.

 

The Washington Treaty as well as the various actions aiming at marine mammal protection, have been restricting ambergris business for years. A 130 kg bulk was found in the Vanuatu Atoll in the Pacific Ocean in 2004 and Cadima Pathé was in charge of selling it.

The Castoreum

Castoreum was used a lot from Antiquity to the XVIIIth Century. It was integrated to medical treatments as for wounds, fever and headaches (indeed castoreum contains salicylic acid a component very close to aspirin).

 

It was also used for its aphrodisiac qualities.

 

Castoreum is one of the six raw materials of animal origin used for perfume compositions along with ambergris, musk, civet cat, honey wax and hyraceum.

Its aggressive smell when pure, transforms into a warm and sweet fragrance once the castoreum has been diluted. It gets close to leather, animal oil and fur scents. Castoreum is used pretty much in amber-scented perfumes (or oriental), as well as in various man perfumes.

 

However, the constant progress enables today organic Chemistry to produce a synthetic equivalent, though it doesn’t always reaches the subtle notes of natural castoreum.

The Musc

Musk is a brownish matter, coming from strong-smelling granules contained in a pocket under the belly of a specific deer, from the moschidae family from Central Asia and the Himalayas.

These glands, more or less the size of half an orange, grow under the abdomen in the mating season, and produce a brown and oily secretion when fresh, and hard and brittle when it is dry.

Perfumery rather uses the musk within the gland whether than the dried musk. Its fragrance is made of animal and wood scents, with its sexual and faeces secretion stenches.

Natural musk contains muscone, cholesterol and androsterone.

 

As all the moschidae family deers are under Annex I or Annex II of the CITES Convention, natural musk isn’t used anymore in perfumery.

Albert Baum, was the first in 1888, to synthesize the artificial musk aroma, starting from nitrated musk: Baum’s musk was born.

The muscone whose chemical structure is methylcyclopentadecanone, is the main component of musk (it was isolated in 1926 by Wallbaum).

 

In perfumery, musk is used to « fix » other fragrances in many man perfumes and woman amber-scented perfumes (or oriental).

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Contact us

Cadima Path├ę
36, avenue Chevreul
92600 Asnières sur Seine


For more information or ordering please contact us through the following coordinates:

Phone: +33 (0)1 40 86 46 20

Fax: +33 (0)1 40 86 46 21

Mail: contact@cadima.com


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